Economic Renewal and the Wars of Religion

The Age of Exploration

Columbus sails the ocean blue


Treaty of Tordesillas


It divides the world between Spain and Portugal.

Da Gama arrives in India


Magellan cicrumnavigates the globe


Statue of Artificers


Regulates trades and wages

The Wars of Religion -Spain, the Netherlands, England, and France

Persecution of Hugenots (nobility was attracted Calvism)

1550 - 1560

Philip II

1556 - 1598

Various Incompetent kings; Catherine de Medici

1559 - 1589

The Dutch nobles form an anti-Spanish League


They fear Spanish Inquisition and influence.
Mass revolts break out.

The Duke of Alva is sent to the Netherlands


Establishes the Council of Troubles, Inquisition

Dutch rebellion against Spanish rule

1568 - 1609

St.Bartholomew's Day Massarce


Thousands of Huguenots are killed in Paris

The union of Utrecht


The Seven Northern proviences declare their independece.

Execution of Mary Staurt (Catholic threat in England)


The humiliating defeat of the Spanish Aramada by England


Henry IV

1589 - 1610

He was a politique: the viewed political unity more important than religious unity.

War of the three Henrys


Herny III dies.
Herny of Guise is assassinated.
Herny of Navarre becomes king.

Henry IV converts to Catholicism "Paris is well worth a mass"


Edict of Nantes:Protestants and Catholics given equal rights


Protestantism is allowed to be praticed in private and in areas where it is the majority.

Twelve Years Truce


It divides the Netherlands into the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Republic.

Peace of Alais: modifies the Edict of Nantes


Eliminates the fortified cities and Protestant armies.

The Thirty Years War

The Bohemia Phase

1618 - 1625

Bohemia deposes of Emperor Matthias and chose Calvist elector Fredrick V.
Bohemia is defeated and Catholicism gains a victory.
The Spanish entrench in the Rhineland

Danish Phase: Led by Duke of Holstein defeated by Wallenstein a Catholic victory

1625 - 1629

Swedish Phase

1630 - 1635

German states begin to unite against foriegners.

Swedish-French Phase

1635 - 1648

France and Sweden continue to attack Germany, Spain invades France.
Germany drives out foriegn invaders.

Peace of Westphalia ends 30yrs war


Territorial gains, religious acceptance, divides HRE