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Carl Linnaeus classify modern humans systematically

1700

Homo sapiens Europeus albescens white people from Europe
Homo sapiens Africanus negreus black people from Africa
Homo sapiens Asiaticus fucus dark people from Asia
Homo sapiens Americanus rubescens red people from the Americas
americanus “reddish, stubborn, and angered easily”
africanus “black, relaxed, and negligent”
asiaticus “sallow, greedy, and easily distracted”
europeanus “white, gentle, and industrious”

Johann Friedrich Blumenback (5 Races on cranial shape)

1700 - 1800

Mongolian
American
Caucasian
African
Malayan (SE Asia)

Earliest Discoveries of Homo (sapiens) Neanderthalensis

1839 - 1886

1839 Engis Cave, Belgium
1848 Forbes Quarry, Gibraltar
1856 Feldhofer Cave, Neandertal, Germany
1886 Spy d'Orneau, Belgium (2 Skeletons)

Anders Retzius developed the Cephalic index

1840

Cephalic Index= breadth skull/length skull x 100

≤ 75 = dolicocephalic
75-79.9 = mesocephalic
80-84.9 = brachycephalic
85+ = hyperbrachycephalic

Cro Magnon, France [First AMH remains ever found]

1868

First ancient AMH
5-8 individuals in burials
approx 27,000 ya
blade tools and bone points

Wadjak, Java, Indonesia [robust AMH]

1888

Asia
clearly AMH but robust

Predomosti Moravia, Czech Republic [AMH]

1894

18 individuals discovered in 1894
communal grave covered with stone slabs and mammoth bones
30,000 ya
Mixture of AMH and Neanderthal traits?

Krapina, Croatia [Neanderthals]

1899

Remains of 80 Neandertals
dated to 130,000 ya
Remains all fragmented (no complete skulls)
Lots of cutmarks and burning
cannibalism?

Le Moustier, France [Neanderthals]

1908 - 1914

Adolescent and Neonate Neanderthal
intentional burials?
40,000 ya

La Chapelle-aux-Saints, France [Neanderthal with arthritis]

1908

Old man with arthritis complete skeleton (Neanderthal)
50,000-60,000 ya
intentional burial?

La Farrassie, France [Neanderthals]

1910 - 1934

Initially 6 individuals (neanderthals)
Adult male, Adult female, 3 children, 1 infant
3rd child found in 1973
70 000 ya
intentional burials?

Kebara Cave, Israel [Neanderthal]

1930 - 1980

1 individual (1982)
Intentional burial (obvious pit)
60,000 ya
Complete torso missing (missing skull and legs)

Shanidar Cave, Iraq [Neanderthal]

1957 - 1961

9 individuals
intentional burials? Shanidar #4 may have been buried with wild flowers

Max Planck institute of Germany sequenced entire Neanderthal Genome

2009

AMHs differ from eachother only at 100 positions
AMHs differ from Neanderthal at 206 positions
split from common ancestor between 350,000-800,000 ya

Last Glacial Maximum/ Neanderthal disappearance

25000 - 30000

Mezmaiskaya, Russia [Neanderthal]

29000

1-2 week old infant
Neanderthal or direct ancestor

Denisova Cave, Siberia [Denisovians (an intermediate)]

30000 - 50000

mtDNA from finger bone (found 2008-announced 2010)
A species that overlapped Neanderthals and us?
Also interbred with modern humans

Arrival of Modern humans in Europe

35000 - 40000

Pestera cu Oase, Romania [Robust AMH]

36000 - 41000

At least 2 individuals
Associated with cave bear remains
Oldest AMH in Europe so far
hybrids?

Sima de los Huesos "Pit of Bones", Atapuerca Hills [Neanderthal Ancestors]

40000

10 crania and 5500 other skeletal fragments
MNI 28; at least 12 females and 8 males
one individual 35 but majority are adolescents or young adults
Clearly ancestors of later Neandertals
Double arched browridge, mid facial prognathism. Cranial capacites range 1125-1390 (mean modern for humans 1350)

Modern Humans Arrive in Europe

40000

Pigmentation Gene MC1R

43000 - 50000

43000 El Sidron, Spain
50000 Monti lessini, Italy
affects production of red and yellow pheomelanin and black and brown pigmentation eumelanin
point mutation at this gene that turned it off

Liujiang, China [Earliest AMH from East Asia] (Sinodonty)

61000 - 73000

Well preserved cranium
Earliest example of AMH from East Asia
Sinodonty: shovel shaped incisors, common in modern Asian humans but not European or African

Skhul, Mount Carmel [AMH]

80000 - 120000

At least 10 individuals-some intentionally buried
Variation among the remains (some modern, some neanderthal, some hybrids)
Used Mousterian Industry (European Neanderthals Stone tool industry)
Some perforated shells for ornamentation
Skhul 5: occipital bun, browridge, mid-facial prognathism

Roc de Marsal, France [Infant Neanderthal]

80000

2-4 infant neanderthal
intentional burial not likely (face down)

Qafzeh, Israel [AMH]

90000 - 100000

Five buried individuals
Adult female with child at her feet
Boy with antlers placed over his head
Have chins, vertical forehead, no real brow ridge
Perforated shells and red ochre ornamentation?

Grotte des Contrebandiers (Smuggler's Cave) Morocco [AMH]

110000

Bouchra (good news) 8-10 year old Girl
discovered in 2009
Shell beads (intentionally perforated?)
Obviously AMH

Klasies River Mouth, South Africa [H.Sapiens]

120000

Remains of up to 10 individuals but no complete crania
Pointy chin
No retro-molar gap
fully modern post crania
Associated with advanced technology
Symbolic behaviour : Red ochre

Herto Bouri, Middle Awash, Ethiopia [H. Sapiens]

160000

Three crania, one somewhat complete
1450 cc
High cranial vault
greatest breadth high on cranium
occiptal bun

Jebel Irhoud, Morocco [H. Sapiens]

160000

1300-1450 cc JI #1
Long, low vault, Neanderthal-like but more vertical forehead, flatter face, modern chin, not a neanderthal, more brow ridge, modern looking mandible

Omo Kibish, SW Ethiopia [H. Sapiens]

195000

2 Incomplete crania, 4 mandibles and assorted other pieces
Early AMHs
more modern looking
Omo 2 cranial capactiy of >1400 cc
Prominent chin, receding forehead but not much, round cranial vault

Petralona, Greece [H. Heidelbergensis]

200000 - 300000

Homo Heidelbergensis cranium 1230 cc
Thought to be same species as Kabwe.
Petralona and Kabwe are 6000 km and 2 continents apart

Pontnewydd, Wales? [Neanderthal?]

230000

Taurodontism: Taurodontism is a condition found in the molar teeth of humans whereby the body of the tooth and pulp chamber is enlarged vertically at the expense of the roots.
Condition Seen in Neanderthals

Florisbad, South Africa [H. Sapiens]

250000

Cranial fragments of early Archaic homo sapien discovered from a Spring
Intermediate between H. Heidelbergensis and early AMHs
Square eye orbit, smaller nasal aperature, Taller cranium, flatter forehead, flatter face, small brow ridge

Caune de l'Argo, France [H. Heidelbergensis]

400000

European Homo Heidelbergensis fossil deformed post-depositionally
Cranial capacity approx 1100-1150 cc

Sima de los Huesos, Spain [Neanderthal Ancestor]

400000

Not quite Neanderthal, likely an immediate ancestor

H. Heidelbergensis arrives in Europe

500000

Mauer, Germany [H. Heidelbergensis]

600000

European Homo Heidelbergensis Type fossil. Massive lower jaw with moderate size teeth

Gran Dolina, Atapuerca Hills, Spain [Oldest hominin remains in Western Europe]

800000 - 875000

Layer 6, oldest hominin remains found so far in Western Europe. Animal remains. 1993 test excavation, 2002 actual excavations

Sima del Elefante, Atapuerca Hills, Spain [Hominid]

1000000 - 1500000

Mandible and tooth at level 9. Homo fossils of undetermined hominid. Animal remains

Form of H. Erectus arrives in Europe

1400000

Barranco Leon, Orce Spain

1400000

No hominin remains but stone tools. Dated by small mammal biochronology and paleomagnetism

Venta Micena, Orce Spain

1600000

Cranial Fragments but question if hominid? No stone tools