Harold D Shafer Jr


Brown versus Board of Education 1954


The case that came to be known as Brown v. Board of Education was actually the name given to five separate cases that were heard by the U.S. Supreme Court concerning the issue of segregation in public schools. some of the plaintiffs cases were heard by a three-judge panel, but then they were appealed and combined with other cases to be seen by the SCOTUS, and they were all consolidated under the name Brown V. Board of Education. The decision in this case was that all schools be desegregated and it was to proceed with "all deliberate speed". This was a major step towards multicultural education in the United States. Without this desegregation rolling, There would've been no room to move forward with more inclusive curriculum and the expansion of teachers, staff, and students of many Ethnicity working more closely together.


Engle V. Vitale


Because of the prohibition of the First Amendment against the enactment of any law "respecting an establishment of religion," which is made applicable to the States by the Fourteenth Amendment, state officials may not compose an official state prayer and require that it be recited in the public schools of the State at the beginning of each school day -- even if the prayer is denominationally neutral and pupils who wish to do so may remain silent or be excused from the room while the prayer is being recited. This case has a major impact on multicultural education, because it avoids the establishment of one religion, or any religion being made a standard in public education. Though at the time it was not focused on many of the religious beliefs which have become more prevalent throughout our student populations, but it did create a precedence which in theory should lessen discriminatory sentiment and ask towards those of a minority religious group.


Title IX 1972


No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance............
This law helped gender equality in the school districts throughout the country is a very important milestone path towards an equitable treatment of the sexes


Equal Educational Opportunities Act


The act states that no U.S. state can deny equal educational opportunity to any person on the basis of gender, race, color, or nationality through intentional segregation by an educational institution; neglecting to resolve intentional segregation; by forced assignment of a student to a school, other than the one closest to his or her place of residence, that promotes further segregation; by discrimination in determining faculty and staff; by purposely transferring a student to another school to increase segregation; or by failing to remove language barriers preventing students from being able to equally participating in English classes.

The act had a vague appropriate action clause which was not made clearer until a major case 1974
Lau v. Nichols (1974)
This case was a landmark case during which the U.S Supreme Court made one of its first interpretations of the term "appropriate action". In 1974 the court ruled that a school district based in San Francisco had violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964 by denying students of Chinese descent opportunities to participate in classes. The court decided that just providing the students with the same textbooks, desks, and teachers was not sufficient, and measures, such as instruction in both Chinese and English, needed to be taken to make sure that English was taught to non-English speaking students.


Impact of civil rights laws

January 1999

U.S. Department of Education
Office for Civil Rights

The Department of Education put out a list of civil rights laws that had major impacts on education in America. This is just an extra bit of reading if you're interested..

Fair Education Act


The FAIR Education Act, SB 48 (Leno), was signed into law on July 14, 2011, and went into effect on January 1, 2012. It amends California Education Code to include the Fair, Accurate, Inclusive and Respectful reference to contributions by people with disabilities and members of the LGBT community in history and social studies curriculum.
Sen. Mark Leno is recorded as saying "ensures that the historical contributions of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people are accurately and fairly portrayed in instructional materials by adding LGBT people to the existing list of under-represented cultural and ethnic groups already included in the state’s inclusionary education requirements."

The included video is not short, but it is pretty informative.