Western Civ 1

Study help (not replacement for resources ie REA) for the CLEP(c) test Western Civilization 1 ~~~ Section One, Ancient Near East, Complete || Section Two, Ancient Greece, Complete || Section Three, Ancient Rome, Completed || Section Four, The Middle Ages, Complete || Section Five, The Renaissance and Reformation, Completed || Section Six, Early Modern Europe, In Progress


Time of study

12000 BCE - 1648 CE

0 ce

0 ce

1000 ce

1000 ce

Fertile Crescent/Mesopotamia

Ancient Near East

Old Stone Age

12000 BCE

The New Stone Age

8000 bce


3500 bce


3200 bce - 2300 bce


3000 bce

First written language; used angled impressions to create pictographs, ideograms and a syllable based alphabet with over 600 symbols.
Developed by the Sumerians, adopted by Akkadians and other near east cultures.
Initially for economy and admin. used for lit and religion.


2300 bce - 2200 bce

Sumer was united by Sargon I of Akkad

Third Dynasty of Ur

2100 bce - 2000 bce


2000 bce


2000 bce - 1900 bce


1900 bce - 1600 bce

Old Babylonian Dynasty


1792 bce - 1750 bce

Code of Hammurabi; first written code

Kassite Rule

1600 bce - 1300 bce

Hittites left with Spoils and Kassites took over

Hittites and Kassites Attack

1600 bce

Hittites were from Asia Minor
Kassites were from present day Iran


1500 bce - 1400 bce

Established kingdom in N. Mesopotamia, kicked out by Hittites

Early Egypt

Ancient Near East

Early Dynastic Period

3100 bce - 2700 bce

1st-2nd Dynasties
Very structured hierarchy

Old Kingdom

2700 bce - 2200 bce

3rd-6th dynasties
Height of the Pharaoh's Power

First Intermediate Period

2200 bce - 2050 bce

7-10th Dynasties
Nomarchs of small sections quarreled under weak Pharoahs

Middle Kingdom

2050 bce - 1700 bce

11-12th dynasties
Ended when the Hyksos invaded N. Egypt.

Second Intermediate Period

1700 bce - 1550 bce

13th-17th Dynasties
N. Egypt dominated by the Hyksos, lower Nile under the control of the Pharaohs.
Ended with the expelling of the Hyksos by Ahmose

New Kingdom

1550 bce - 1100 bce

18-20th Dynasties
Expanded into the East Coast of the Mediterranean and the Sinai Peninsula, battled with the Hittites for the territory

Amarna Period

1375 bce - 1358 bce

Pharoah Akhenaton started the cult of the sun god Aton

Battle of Kadesh

1274 bce

Concluded the centuries long conflict between the Hittites and the Egyptians, concluding in a peace treaty, but no victor.

Leap Year invented

100 bce

End of Egypt

31 bce

Under Cleopatra Egypt was incorporated into the Roman Empire.


Ancient Near East

Height of power

2000 bce


1800 bce

Destroyed many palaces, but was recovered from quickly.

Volcanic Eruption

1627 bce

Destroyed colonies on Thera and created tidal waves destroying coastal cities on Crete.

Invasion of the Mycenaeans

1550 bce

Attacks destroying many settlements; probably from the Mycenaeans.


1200 bce

Effectively gone, but continued until 1200 bc


Ancient Near East

Early Settlements

6500 bce

Bronze and Marble

3000 bce

Arts develop, including metal working and marble sculpture.

First Greek Speakers in Greece

2300 bce

Building Projects

1700 bc

Centralized Culture after several centuries of small villages

Invasion of Crete

1550 bce

Height of power

1400 bce - 1200 bce

Real Trojan War?

1250 bce

Last major undertaking of the Mycenaeans before their destruction by the Sea People


Ancient Near East

Possible Migration of the Medes and Persians

1000 bce

Guesstimate of the REA

Zoroaster creates Zoroastrianism

600 bce

Monotheistic Dualist religion, maybe as early as 1000 bce, but most commonly thought to be started around 600 bce.

Cyrus the Great

559 bce - 530 bce

Ended the Chaldean Empire and started the Persian Empire

Fall of the Medes

550 bce

Annexation of Anatolia

547 bce

Defeated Croesus of Lydia.

Conquered the Neo-Babylonians

539 bce


530 bce - 522 bce

Conquered Egypt and Libya.


521 bce - 486 bce

Conquered Indus Valley to the East and Thrace to the West


486 bce - 465 bce

Defeated by Greeks


Ancient Near East

Abraham's migration between

2000 bce - 1500 bce

Exodus from Egypt

1275 bce

The Hebrews were slaves in Egypt and were freed by Moses

Saul's reign

1020 bce - 1004 bce

David's reign

1004 bce - 965 bce

Solomon's reign

965 bce - 928 bce

Ahab's reign

871 bce - 852 bce

The prophet Amos preaches against economic sin

750 bc

Isrealites deported to Assyria

721 bce

Neo-Babylonian captivity

586 bce - 539 bce

Release of the Jews by Cyrus the Great of Persia

539 bce

Other Near-Eastern Cultures

Ancient Near East
Color coded || Including; The Hittites, The Sea Peoples The Phoenicians, The Assyrians, The Neo-Babylonians/Chaldeans

Spread of Civilization

2000 bce

Urbanization moved out of the select areas and into a broader area, and encompassed more cultures.

Hittites; Invasion of Old Babylon

1600 bce

Downfall of the Amorite dynasty, based out of Anatolia.

Ugarit Alphabet developed in Syria

1400 bce

Adopted and adapted by the Phoenicians and has been developed as the basis of most western alphabets.
30 symbols, Phoenicians used 22, and simplified the cuneiform letters

Hittites & Egyptians; First International Peace Treaty

1300 bce

Over disputed areas in Syria and Palestine.

The Sea Peoples are active

1250 bce - 1150 bce

Raiders who overthrew many governments.

Time of independence

1150 bce - 750 bce

Phoenicians; Begin Settling

900 bce

Settlements all over the Mediterranean and as far North as Britain

Phoenicians; Carthage founded

800 bce

Assyrian Rule

800 bce - 612 bce

All of the near east was conquered by the Assyrians

Assyria; Conquered Egypt

660 bce

This made the Assyrians the first nation to control both the Nile and Tigris/Euphrates River valleys.

Neo-Babylonian/Chaldean Empire

612 bc - 539 bc

Emphasis on culture.

Assyrians & Chaldeans; Fall of Nineveh

612 bce

Neo-Babylonians; Nebuchadnezzar II

605 bce - 562 bce

Exported the Hebrews after capturing Jerusalem.

Neo-Babylon; Reign of Narbonidus

556 bce - 539 bce

Ancient Greeks

Ancient Greece

Mycenaean Bronze Age

2300 bce - 1100 bce

Migration to destruction by the Sea Peoples

First ambitious building projects

1700 bce

Amassed wealth came from raiding and trading.

Height of power

1400 bce - 1200 bce

Massive raids and invasions, large scale trading, high culture.

The Greek Dark Age

1100 bce - 800 bce

Decline in culture, Dorian Greeks were not as advanced as those who fled the Sea Peoples. Little to no information about this time period.

Population Boom

800 bce

Archaic Period

800 bce - 500 bce

The Illiad is composed

800 bce

Composed by Homer as an account a a semi-mythological war taking place around 1250 bc

First Olympics

776 bce

Held in honor of the Olympian Gods


750 bce - 500 bce

Black Sea, Mediterranean, Iberia, Gaul, Corsica, Sicily, S. Italy, Libya, and the Nile Delta to an extent.

First Spartan War

735 bce - 715 bce

Against its neighbor Messenia.


700 bce

Wrote 'Works and Days' - life of a farmer
And 'Theogony' - a history of the gods and their myths

Tyranny is common

700 bce - 500 bce

Second Spartan War

650 bce - 620 bce

Enslaved the inhabitants of Messenia.

Cylon defeated in Athens

632 bce

he tried to establish a tyranny to settle socio-economic troubles, but was defeated by his rivals.

Draco initiated as Tyrant in Athens

621 bce

Athens; Solon elected archon

594 bce

Athens; Peisistratus holds power

546 bce - 527 bce

Benevolent and lower class pleasing, though he exiled those he didn't agree with.

First Tragic Play

534 bce

Instituted by the tyrant Peisistratus


525 bce - 456 bce

Profoundly religious and focused on Hubris.
'The Persians', 'Prometheus Bound' and the 'Oresteia' Trilogy.


518 bce - 438 bce

Poet who wrote Odes to Sporting events

Athens; Cleithenes rewrites democracy

508 bce

redefined the classes and phratries

Prose appears

500 bce

Used mainly in study when artistic language was unnecessary.

Ionians rebel against Persians

499 bce

The Ionians in Lydia rebelled against Persian oppressors, with assistance from the Greek Mainland, esp. the Athenians who raided Persian controlled Sardis.


496 bce - 406 bce

Expressed deep sorrow on the plight of humanity;
'Oedipus', and 'Antigone'.


495 bce - 429 bce

Important Statesman and General in the Athenian Empire.


490 bce - 430 bce

designed and sculpted Athena for the Parthenon

Persian War

490 bce - 479 bce

The Greeks were victorious through superior strategy despite large numerical disadvantage.


484 bce - 425 bce

Father of History, divided between East and Western Civ, recorded the Persian wars.


480 bce - 406 bce

Unconventional endings and methods, emphasizing human achievements over those of the gods.
'Medea' is a prime example of his work

Battle of Salamis

480 bce

Vital battle, won mostly due to the efforts of the thetes rowers on the triremes.

Beginning of the Classical Age

480 bce

Delian League Established

478 bce

A large Naval alliance signed at Delos, where the treasury was located, between over 100 poleis including Athens and Sparta.


469 bce - 399 bce

Founded the Socratic method, and trained philosophers to find truth.

Hippocrates of Cos

460 bce - 377 bce

Hippocratic Oath, Father of Medicine, observation and chronicles of what works


460 bce - 400 bce

Impartial account of the Peloponnesian War


450 bce - 385 bce

Comedic writer who used mainly satire. Extensive.


450 bce - 404 bce

Nephew of Pericles, and lost the Peloponnesian war

Parthenon Built

440 bce - 429 bce

Peloponnesian War

431 bce - 404 bce

Sparta v. Athens

Famous funeral Oration of Pericles

430 bce

Honored fallen Athenians


428 bce - 347 bce

Wrote the 'Dialogues' to record Socrates teachings, founded a school in Athens, abstract and spiritual gave the concrete and physical meaning, 'Republic' and Timaeus.

Loss at Syracruse

413 bce

Peloponnesian War

Oligarchy in Athens

411 bce - 403 bce

Following revolt in subjugated polies


384 bce - 322 bce

Founded the Lyceum, Taught every subject, believed in a Prime Mover who started all things, single universe, moderation is preferable to extremes, categorized government and was opposed to democracy (which he equated with anarchy).

Philip II rules Macedonia

359 bce - 336 bce

Established Macedonia


341 bce - 270 bce

Founded Epicureanism which is the pursuit of pleasure, in particular those of the mind.

Philip II invades Greece

338 bce

Alexander the Great

336 bce - 323 bce

Conquered much of the known world; empire stretching from Greece down the Nile and to the Indus river

Zeno of Citium

335 bce - 263 bce

Founded Stoicism; enlightened apathy, suppression of desire and acceptance of divine providence.

Alexander the Great sets out

334 bce

Alexander the Great conquers Persia

328 bce

Hellenistic Age

323 bce


310 bce - 250 bce

Heliocentric Theory


300 bce


Archimedes of Syracruse

287 bce - 212 bce

Calculated the value of pi, Archimedes screw, pulleys, levers,


276 bce - 196 bce

Calculated the Circumference of the Earth


190 bce - 120 bce

Developed the Astrolabe

End of the Hellenistic Age

30 bce

Ancient Rome

Ancient Rome

Rome is Founded

753 bce

Etruscans expelled

509 bce

The Twelve Tables are adopted

450 bce

Gave the Plebians certain rights

Rome is Sacked by Gauls

390 bce

King Pyrrhus of Epirus

307 bce - 272 bce

Greek ruler in S. Italy who had a Pyrrhic victory.

Plebeian Assembly has legislative power over the Senate

287 bce

Rome conquers Italy to the Po River

265 bce

First Punic War

264 bce - 241 bce

Naval battles Rome defeated Carthage and gained Sicily


254 bce - 184 bce

Comedic Dramatist


239 bce - 169 bce

First Roman Poet.
Chronicled the history of Rome in the 'Annales'

Second Punic War

218 bce - 201 bce

Started in Spain, Hannibal crossed the Alps, Rome attack Carthage.

Battle of Cannae

216 bce

Major defeat of Romans who then changed to Fabian tactics, fighting almost guerrilla warfare.

Battle of Zama

202 bce

Scipio the Elder defeats the Carthaginians

Battle of Cynocephale

197 bce

Major victory of Rome against Greek tactics


190 bce - 159 bce

Comedic Dramatist

Jews rebel

161 bce - 135 bce

Under the leadership of the Maccabees, the Jews rebel against the Seleucids.

Jews ally with Rome

161 bce - 134 bce

Cato the Elder writes 'On Agriculture'

160 bce

First major Roman work of prose.

Marcus Tullius Cicero

160 bce - 43 bce

Wrote political essays, speeches and letters. Was executed for outspoken opposition.

Third Punic War

149 bce - 146 bce

Scipio the Younger destroys Carthage

Tiberius Gracchus assasinated

133 bce

Pergamun willed to Rome

133 bce

Gaius Gracchus assasinate

121 bce

Jugurthine War

111 bce - 106 bce

Won General Marius fame

Defeat of Germans in Gaul

102 bce - 101 bce

Social wars

90 bce - 88 bce

Marius dies

86 bce


85 bce - 54 bce

Late Republic, love poems to his unfaithful mistress

Sulla steps down as dictator

80 bce

Bithynia willed to Rome

74 bce

Spartacus leads revolt

73 bce - 71 bce

Famous slave revolt


70 bce - 19 bce

Patronized by Augustus Caesar, wrote epics, Aenid, propaganda paid for by Caesar


65 bce - 8 bce



59 bce - 17 ce


Crassus dies

53 bce

Member of the Triumvirate

Civil War

49 bce - 45 bce

Caused by Ceaser who marched into Rome with a victorious army

Ides of March

44 bce

Caesar assassinated on the 15 of March

Civil War

44 bce - 42 bce

Caesar's supporters outraged at his assassination


43 bce - 17 ce

Metamorphoses; on Greco-Roman Mythology,
On the Art of Love; a manual for seduction; exiled for following <

Golden Age of Literature

43 bce - 14 ce

Roman Literature; Characterized by Virgil, Horace, Ovid and Livy

Herod Rules Palestine

37 bce - 4 bce

Egypt falls to the Romans

30 bce

Rule of Augustus

27 bce - 14 ce

Octavian the first Augustus

27 bce

Pax Romana

27 bce

Jesus of Nazareth

4 ce - 30 ce

Founder of Christianity


4 ce - 65 ce

Stoic Philosopher who wrote tragedies and was executed by Nero.

Tiberius Rules

14 ce - 37 ce

Silver Age of Literature

14 ce - 138 ce

characterized by suppression, pessimistic; Tacitus, Seneca, Lucan, Persius, Petronius and Juvenal

Tiberius Rules

14 ce - 37 ce


34 ce - 62 ce


Caligula Rules

37 ce - 41 ce


39 ce - 65 ce

Wrote 'Pharsalia' as an epic history of the war between Caesar and Pompey. Executed by Nero.

Nero Rules

54 ce - 68 ce


55 ce - 117

Historian who highlighted the negatives of Roman civilization and the positives of Barbarian.

Paul of Tarsus dies

64 ce


65 ce - 128 ce


Jewish Revolt

66 ce - 73 ce

Civil War

68 ce

Four rivals claimed Nero's throne

Destruction of the Jewish Temple

70 ce

Colosseum Built

72 ce - 80 ce

Domitian Rules

81 ce - 96 ce


100 ce - 170 ce

Astronomer; Ptolemaic model of the solar system/cosmos.

Trajan's Collumn built

106 ce - 113 ce

Hadrian Rules

117 ce - 138 ce

Height of expansion

117 ce

included Mesopotamia

Pantheon built

118 ce - 128 ce

most impressive Roman Dome


125 ce - 200 ce

First Latin Novel; 'The Golden Ass'


129 ce - 199 ce



129 ce - 199 ce

Bar-Kochba leads Jewish revolt

132 ce - 135 ce

In response to a Roman plan to build a pagan temple.

Marcus Aurelius Rules

161 ce - 180 ce

End of Pax Romana

180 ce


205 ce - 270 ce

Founded Neoplatonism as a philosophy


216 ce - 275 ce

Started the Manichaean cult


233 ce - 305 ce

Added Magical Rituals to Neoplatonism

Decius Rules

249 ce - 251 ce

St. Anthony of Egypt

250 ce - 350 ce

Desert Father who practiced ascetic regimes


250 ce - 300 ce

Added Magical Rituals to Neoplatonism

Diocletian Rules

284 ce - 305 ce

St. Pachomius

290 ce - 346 ce

Desert Father who organized a community of monks


293 ce - 373 ce

Constantine Rules

306 ce - 337 ce

Arch of Constantine Built

312 ce - 315 ce

Edict of Milan

313 ce

Constantine takes over entire empire

324 ce

Council of Nicea

325 ce

Against Arianism

Basil the Great

329 ce - 379 ce

Gregory of Nazianzus

329 ce - 389 ce

Constantine moves the capital

330 ce

St. Ambrose of Milan

339 ce - 397 ce

St. Jerome

347 ce - 420 ce

Created the Vulgate Bible

St. Augustine of Hippo

354 ce - 430 ce

John Cassian

360 ce - 433 ce

Spread monasticism to Europe

Julian Rules

361 ce - 363 ce

Tried to revert Christianity to persecution

Visigoths admitted to the Balkans to escape the Huns

376 ce

Theodosius Rules

379 ce - 395 ce

St. Simon Stylites

390 ce - 459 ce

Desert Father who practiced ascetic regimes

Alaric assumes control of the Visigoths

395 ce

John Chrysostone

407 ce

Emperor Theodosius Rules

408 ce - 450 ce

Theodosian Code

Romans leave Britain

410 ce

Visigoths Sack Rome

410 ce


410 ce - 485 ce

Added Magical Rituals to Neoplatonism

Gaiseric Rules the Vandals

428 ce - 477 ce

Council of Ephesus

431 ce

Against the split personality doctrine of Nestorianism

Attila rules the Huns

433 ce - 453 ce

Pope Leo I

440 ce - 461 ce

Burgundians settle in SE Gaul

440 ce

Council of Chalcedon

451 ce

Against the monophysitism doctrine saying Christ was only spirit.

Pope Leo I convinces Attila to spare Rome

452 ce

Vandals sack Rome

455 ce

Theodric King

474 ce - 526 ce

Western Rome

Zeno rules the Eastern Roman Empire

474 ce - 491 ce

Romulus Augustulus

475 ce - 476 ce

Odoacer deposes Romulus Augustus

476 ce

King Clovis of the Franks

481 ce - 511 ce

Franks convert to Catholocism

500 ce

Emperor Justinian Rules

527 ce - 565 ce

Codified Civil Law.

War for Italy

535 ce - 555 ce

between the Ostrogoths and the Western Roman Empire

Lombards invade Italy

568 ce

Lomardian empire

572 ce - 774 ce

Pope Gregory the Great

590 ce - 604 ce

The Byzantine Empire

The Middle Ages

Constantine the Great Rules

306 ce - 337 ce

Founded the Byzantine Empire

Constantinople founded

330 ce

The Roman Empire Divides

395 ce

Rome falls

476 ce

Justinian the Great Rules

527 ce - 565 ce

Justinian Code, Conquered much of the former Western Empire, but was lost after his death.

Justinian Code

530 ce - 539 ce

Team of experts led by Tribonian

Heraclius Rules

610 ce - 641 ce

Heraclius conquers Sassanians

628 ce

SE provinces fall to Islam

634 ce

Beginning of attacks on Constantinople

672 ce

Emperor Leo III

717 ce - 741 ce

Forbade the use of icons in worship on the grounds it was idolatry.

Height of attacks on Constantinople

717 ce - 718 ce

Icons re-allowed by Empress Theodora II

843 ce

Byzantine Empire reaches height of second expansion

1000 ce

Including the Balkans, Anatolia, S Italy and Crete & Cyprus

Emperor Alexius I rules

1081 ce - 1118 ce

Asked the Pope for help against Muslim aggressors, initiating the Crusades.

Ottoman Turks Conquer Constantinople.

1453 ce


The Middle Ages


570 ce - 632 ce

'Final Prophet', Founded Islam.

Muhammad's first revelation

610 ce

Muhammad takes over Medina peacefully

622 ce

Abu Bakr is Caliph

632 ce - 634 ce

Put down revolts to maintain unity.

Umar is Caliph

634 ce - 644 ce

Initiated Islamic conquests

Uthman is Caliph

644 ce - 656 ce

Showed favoritism and caused inner strife

First Civil War

656 ce - 661 ce

Started with the assassination of Uthman, ended with the death of Ali; Muhammad's son in law | Between Shiites (direct descent from Muhammad) and Sunnites (elected Caliphs).

Islamic Empire Conquers Middle & Near East

656 ce

Inc. Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Palestine & Egypr

Umayyad Dynasty

661 ce - 750 ce

Expanded Conquests, moved capital from Mecca to Damascus, did not encourage mass conversion for financial reasons.

Second civil War begins

680 ce

The Abbasid Dynasty

750 ce - 1258 ce

Abul Abbas overthrew the worldly Umyyads, moved capital to Baghdad, encourage philosophy & conversion.

Mongols overthrow Abbasids

1258 ce

The Germanic Kingdoms

Color coded || Including Visigoths, Franks, Britains & Vikings
The Middle Ages

Visigoths sack Rome

410 ce

St. Patrick converts the Irish

430 ce

Merovech Rules

448 ce - 458 ce

Started the Frankish Merovingian Dynasty, United the two Frankish Groups

Clovis Rules

481 ce - 511 ce

Merovingian king, converted to Catholicism, subjugated Arian Gauls, Vandals and Visigoth.

Visigoths leave Gaul

507 ce

Bishop Gregory of Tours

538 ce - 594 ce

Wrote an account of Clovis

Picts converted

563 ce

Augustine of Canterbury converts Anglo-Saxons

597 ce

Synod of Whitby

664 ce

Roman and Celtic churches agreed on celebrations such as Easter.

Venerable Bede

673 ce - 735 ce

wrote 'History of the English Church and People'.

Charles Martel rules

688 ce - 741 ce

First Carolingian Mayor of the House, fought the battle of Tours.

Visigoths overthrown by Muslims

711 ce

Pepin the Short

714 - 768

First Carolingian to claim the title of King, crowned by Pope Stephen II.

Battle of Tours

732 ce

Charles Martel led the Merovingian Franks to defeat and stop Muslim expansion.

Alcuin of York

735 ce - 804 ce

headed educational reforms in Charlemagne's Empire

End of Merovingian dynasty

751 ce

Stephen II is Pope

752 ce - 757 ce

Crowned Pepin the Short

Pepin coronated

754 ce

Donation of Pepin

755 ce

Part of Lombardy, beginning of the papal states.

Charlemagne rules

768 ce - 814 ce

Expanded the Frank's empire.

Charlemagne defeats and converts Saxons

772 ce - 804 ce

Charlemagne defeats Lombards

774 ce

Charlemagne fights back Muslims in Spain

778 ce

Pope Leo III

795 ce - 816 ce

Charlemagne defeats Avars

795 ce - 796 ce

Located on the Danube river

Viking Invasions begin

800 ce

Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor

December 25, 800 ce

By Pope Leo III

Louis the Pious Rules

814 ce - 840 ce

Unable to hold the Carolingian empire together.

Treaty of Verdun

843 ce

Divided the Carolingian empire into three parts;
Charles the Bald in the West
Emperor Lothair in the central area
Louis the German in the East

Saracens invade Rome

843 ce

Muslim pirates

Treaty of Mersen

870 ce

Settled border disputes between the three kingdoms. Continued debate until the 20th century.

Magyars enter Europe

900 ce

Nomadic group from the East, raided the remnants of the Carolingian empire.

Battle of Lechfeld

955 ce

German ruler Otto the Great defeats the Magyars, who settle in Hungary.

Medieval Church

The Middle Ages

Pope Leo I

440 ce - 461 ce

Convinced Attila the Hun not to attack Rome.

St. Benedict of Nursa

480 ce - 547 ce

Wrote the Benedictine Rule on Monastic life.

Pope St. Gregory I (the Great)

590 ce - 604 ce

Greatly expanded the political powers of the Papacy and maintained excellently as Pope

Pope Nicholas I

858 ce - 867 ce

A revision of the Nicene Creed caused a split in the Church

Monastery of Cluny

910 ce

Strict use of Benedictine rule

John XII is Pope

955 ce - 964 ce

Removed by Otto I of Germany and replaced by Leo VIII.

Sylvester II is Pope

999 ce - 1003 ce

Intellectual Frenchman ordained by Otto III. Viewed as an outsider and not very respected, despite his excellent papacy.

Pope Leo IX

1048 ce - 1054 ce

Divided the church by attempting to dictate doctrine to the Eastern Church.

Catholic and Eastern Churches Split

1054 ce

After the Filioque Controversy Pope Leo IX attempted to take control over Eastern churches. Both called the other heretical, and divided over the importance of the person of Christ.

First College of Cardinals

1059 ce

Elected the Pope, forbidding secular rulers from intervening.

Gregory VII is Pope

1073 ce - 1085 ce

Initiated the Gregorian reforms

Pope Urban II

1088 ce - 1099 ce

Began the Crusades at the Council of Clermont.

Bernard of Clairvaux

1090 ce - 1153 ce

Spokesman for the Cistercian Rule.

Bernard of Clairvaux

1090 ce - 1153 ce

Preached for a crusade to win back Edessa, which the Muslims had taken.

Council of Clermont

1095 ce

Called by Pope Urban II at the request of Byzantine emperor Alexius I initiating the crusades.

The First Crusade

1096 ce - 1099 ce

Christian victory; Succeeded partly because of inner strife among the Muslims.

Cistercian Rule founded

1098 ce

By Robert of Molesmes

The Second Crusade begins

1144 ce

St. Dominic Guzman

1170 ce - 1221 ce

Founded second order of friars - the Dominicans.

St. Francis of Assisi

1181 ce - 1226 ce

Founded the first order of Friars - the Franciscans.

The Third Crusade Begins

1187 ce

Saladin, Prince of Egypt, captured Jerusalem. Richard I, Philip II Augustus, and Frederick I led the crusade. Failure.

Pope Innocent III

1198 ce - 1216 ce

Height of Papal Power

The Fourth Crusade begins

1203 ce

Never even reached Israel, raided the Byzantine Empire for money.

The Latin Empire

1204 ce - 1261 ce

Based out of Constantinople when the crusaders were distracted by the wealth of the Byzantines.

Albigensian Crusade

1208 ce - 1229 ce

Absolutely brutal.

Pope Gregory IX

1227 ce - 1241 ce

Fifth Crusade begins

1228 ce

Ended in diplomacy, giving Christians access to the Holy Land.

Inquisition established

1231 ce

Ordained by Pope Gregory IX to find escaped Cathars, and any other heretics.

Sixth Crusade Begins

1249 ce

Organized by S. Louis IX of France, won victories on the coast, but was forced to surrender and pay a ransom

Seventh Crusade

1270 ce - 1291 ce

led by Louis IX, tried to conquer Tunisia, Louis died in the campaign. The last outpost fell in Acre in 1291 ce.
No further crusades were attempted in the Holy Land. Redirected to Spain and the suppression of Heretics.

Pope Boniface VIII

1294 ce - 1303 ce

tried to assert papal power, but was beaten by French Soldiers and died as a result.

Pope Clement V

1305 ce - 1314 ce

First Avignon Pope

"Babylonian Captivity"

1309 ce - 1377 ce

Papal offices in Avignon France

Philip II suppresses Knights Templar

1312 ce

In order to take their money

John Wycliffe

1330 ce - 1384 ce

English reformer. Translated the Bible into English. Critical of Catholic hierarchy and emphasized Bible over Councils. Followers called Lollards.

John Huss

1370 ce - 1415 ce

Czech (Bohemian) reformer, influenced by Wycliffe. Attended the Council of Constance in order to proclaim his beliefs, but was burned at stake.

Gregory XI

1370 ce - 1378 ce

Moved the Papacy back to Rome.

Urban VI

1378 ce - 1389 ce

Elected under duress, refused to abdicate.

The Great Scism

1378 ce - 1417 ce

A Pope in both Avignon and in Rome

Clement VII

1378 ce - 1394 ce

French Pope, antipope to Urban VI. Refused to Abdicate


1409 ce - 1417 ce

John XXIII elected as a compromise between the College of Cardinals in Avignon and Rome. Other Popes refused to Abdicate

Council of Constance

1414 ce - 1418 ce

Convened of all church leaders to rectify the Great Schism.

Pope Martin V

1417 ce - 1431 ce

elected at the Council of Constance

Hussite Wars

1419 ce - 1436 ce

prompted by the execution of John Huss, ended by a compromise between Hussites and the Chatholic Church

Eugene IV

1431 ce - 1447 ce

Pope, called the Council of Ferrara-Florence and reasserted Papal authority. Tried to reach a compromise with the Eastern Church.

Council of Basel

1431 ce - 1449 ce

Called by Martin V for a general reform of the Church.

Council of Ferrara-Florence

1438 ce - 1445 ce

An attempt to end the schism between East and West Churches.

The Holy Roman Empire

The Middle Ages

Otto III rules

996 ce - 1002 ce

Ordained Sylvester II

Emperor Henry IV Rules

1056 ce - 1106 ce

Sparked the Investiture Controversy

Council of Worms

1076 ce

Convened by Emperor HEnry IV to depose Gregory VII in order to preserve his power. He was excommunicated and had to seek absolution.

Concordant of Worms

1122 ce

Solved the Investiture Controversy with a compromise.

Conrad III rules

1138 ce - 1152 ce

Organized and fought in the Second Crusade

Fredrick I Barbossa rules

1152 ce - 1190 ce

Frederick II rules

1215 ce - 1250 ce

Granted the Teutonic Knights land.

Medieval England

The Middle Ages

Alfred the Great

871 ce - 899 ce

Attacked the Viking settlements.

King Canute rules

1016 ce - 1035 ce

Combined kingdoms of England and Normandy

Edward the Confessor rules

1042 ce - 1066 ce

Last Anglo-Saxon King, died w/out an heir.

William the Conqueror rules

1066 ce - 1085 ce

Duke of Normandy, defeated the Earl of Wessex and King of Norway. Reorganized the government.

Period of Chaos

1135 ce - 1154 ce

Henry II rules

1154 ce - 1189 ce

Member of the Angevin dynasty. Inherited the County of Anjou & Duchy of Normandy, married into French territories, invaded Ireland and forced Wales & Scotland to observe his rule. Tangled family, ruled and was a servant to the French monarchs. Added common law, juries, removed feudal courts, tried to have church trials in royal courts, but was overruled by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Becket.

Archbishop of Canterbury murdered.

1170 ce

Richard I rules

1189 ce - 1199 ce

Lion-Hearted, spent most of his rule on the Crusades.

Prince John rules

1199 ce - 1216 ce

Inept ruler, enforced unfair taxes in order to war with France w/out consulting his Barons, resulting in Civil war ending in the Magna Carta

Magna Carta

1215 ce

Protected the feudal rights of the barons from the King

Henry III Rules

1216 ce - 1272 ce

See Barons revolt, and Provisions of Oxford

Provisions of Oxford

1258 ce

Amendments to the Magna Carta, started a revolt of Barons

Barons Revolt

1263 ce - 1267 ce

led by Simon de Monfort, because of the refusal of the King to recognize amendments to the Magna Carta.

1264 ce Capture of Henry III
1265 ce First Parliment

Jews expelled

1290 ce

Edward III rules

1327 ce - 1377 ce

See First Phase of the Hundred Years' War

Henry V rules

1413 ce - 1422 ce

see battle of Agincourt

Medieval France

The Middle Ages

End of the Carolingian Dynasty

987 ce

Hugh Capet rules

987 ce - 996 ce

Started the Capetian Dynasty which ran until 1328

Louis VII rules

1137 ce - 1180 ce

Organized and fought the Second Crusade.

Philip II Augustus rules

1180 ce - 1223 ce

Expanded power of the French Monarchy drastically, seized land from John of England.

Louis IX rules

1226 ce - 1270 ce

Centralized power, very active, pious = St. Louis.

Philip IV (the Fair) rules

1285 ce - 1314 ce

Used increasing power to crush enemies including Pope Boniface (over taxes). Expelled Jews. Increased taxes, manipulated and reinterpreted existing laws. Convened the first Estates General during his quarrel with the Pope.
Popular King.

John II

1350 ce - 1364 ce

First ruler of the Valois Dynasty.

Charles V

1364 ce - 1380 ce

see second phase

Charles VII

1422 ce - 1461 ce

See 'French Retaliate'

The Hundred Years' War

The Middle Ages

Last Capetian King dies without heir

1328 ce

Edward III claims French throne on his mother's side.

First Phase

1337 ce - 1360 ce

The Hundred Years' War

1337 ce - 1453 ce

Centralized Monarchies in France and England fought many wars, collectively refered to as The Hundred Years' War

Battle of Crécy

1346 ce

English longbowmen defeat French Calvary, ending the age of chivalric warfare.

Battle of Poiters

1356 ce

Edward the Black Prince captured John II.

The Peace of Brétigny

1360 ce

French concede the province of Aquitaine (~1/3 total area of France)

Second Phase

1369 ce - 1389 ce

Charles V of France regained lost territory, sudden death resulted in a truce.

Battle of Agincourt

1415 ce

Henry V of England invades N. France, Philip the Good duke of Normandy assisted

French Retaliate

1429 ce

Joan of Arc convinces Charles VII of France to go on the offensive.

Death of Joan of Arc

1431 ce

After capture by the Burgundians in 1430 - executed by British.

Philip the Good defects to France

1435 ce

Removing much support for England. England is left with a few minor coastal cities.

Medieval Spain

The Middle Ages

Muslims invade Spain

711 ce

El Cid

1043 ce - 1099 ce

Spanish warrior/adventurer

Portugal declares independence

1139 ce

Portugal recognized by the Pope

1179 ce

Medieval Eastern Europe

The Middle Ages

Rurik becomes ruler of Novgorod

862 ce

Novgorod becomes part of Kiev

882 ce

Jaroslav the Wise dies

1054 ce

Brought the combined city state of Kievan Rus to its heighth

Genghis Khan rules Mongols

1167 ce - 1227 ce

Giant empire across China into E. Europe.

Teutonic charge

1234 ce

Pope Gregory IX gives the order to Christianize E. Europe to the Teutonic Knights.

Alexander Nevsky rules Novogorod

1236 ce - 1263 ce

Powerful ruler

Mongols sieze Russia

1237 CE

Organize the 'Golden Horde', Moscow uses collaboration with the Mongols to grow their power.

Battle of Lake Peipus

1242 ce

Halted the Eastward Expansion of the Teutons.

Lithuanians Convert

1386 ce

Jagiello rules Lithuania

1386 ce - 1434 ce

Accepted Roman Catholicism and married into polish dynasty

Battle of Tannenberg

1410 ce

Teutons defeat the Lithuanians & Poles

Ivan III (the Great) rules Moscow

1462 ce - 1505 ce

Overthrew the Mongols in the late 15th century and was poised to take over Russia.

Albretch of Hohenzollern leaves Teutonic Knights and sets up the Prussian Duchy.

1525 ce

Misc. Middle Ages

The Middle Ages

Peter Abelard

1079 ce - 1142 ce

Charismatic Theological teacher, in favor of using logic to solve disparities.

John of Salisbury

1115 ce - 1180 ce

Political theorist, described medieval society as a body, with the King as its head.

First Gothic church

1140 ce

Robert Grosseteste

1175 ce - 1253 ce

companion of Roger Bacon

Albert the Great

1200 ce - 1280 ce

continued Bacon's work

Roger Bacon

1214 ce - 1294 ce

Scientist who contributed greatly to the scientific method

St. Thomas Aquinas

1225 ce - 1274 ce

Dominican Monk, wrote 'Summary of Theology' which combined faith and reason.

Marco Polo

1254 ce - 1324 ce

Pioneered Silk road.

Dante Alighieri

1265 ce - 1321 ce

venacular Italian poet


1267 ce - 1337 ce

Added the illusion of depth to Gothic painting

Marsilius of Padua

1275 ce - 1343 ce

wrote 'defender of the peace'.
Favored laymen's council to papal leadership.

William of Ockham

1285 ce - 1349 ce

'Ockham's Razor' foundation for modern scientific method.

Jean Buridan

1297 ce - 1358 ce

Changed Aristotle's theory of motion to a theory of 'impetus'.

Francesco Petrarch

1304 ce - 1374 ce

Popular Itaian poet


1315 ce - 1317 ce

caused by over population

Nicole Oresme

1330 ce - 1382 ce

see Buridan

Bubonic Plague

1347 ce - 1351 ce

Johannes Gutenberg

1400 ce - 1468 ce

First printing Press

The Italian Renaissance

The Renaissance and Reformation

Francesco Petrarch

1304 ce - 1374 ce

Father of Renaissance Humanism. Valued Roman writings. Poet Laureate of Rome


1313 ce - 1375 ce

Renaissance Humanist

Coluccio Saluati

1331 ce - 1406 ce

Advocated Civic humanism.

Leonardo Bruni

1369 ce - 1444 ce

Civic humanist

Cosimo Medici

1389 ce - 1464 ce

Part of the family of wealthy Florentine nobles who ruled Florence much of the 15th Century.


1401 ce - 1428 ce

Built off Giotto's effects and created linear perspective.

Francesco Sforza

1401 ce - 1466 ce

Condottiere (mercenary-General) who conquered Milan and set up a dynasty there.

Lorenzo Valla

1407 ce - 1457 ce

Donation of Constantine = Fraud.

First Renaissance Dome

1420 ce - 1436 ce

Built in Florence, designed by Brunelleschi.

Donatello's 'David'

1430 ce - 1435 ce

Marsilio Ficino

1433 ce - 1499 ce

Translated the complete works of Plato to Latin. Translated Neoplatonic works. Philosopher and Theologian.

Alberti's 'On Painting'

1436 ce

Lorenzo Medici (The Magnificent)

1449 ce - 1492 ce

Part of the family of wealthy Florentine nobles who ruled Florence much of the 15th Century.

Girolamo Savonarola

1452 ce - 1498 ce

Dominican Preacher, preached against luxury and corruption, called for destruction of artist works in "The Bonfire of the Vanities." Burned at stake as a dangerous fanatic.

Leonardo da Vinci

1452 ce - 1519 ce

Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Engineer, Scientist, Musician and Inventor. 'The Last Supper,' 'Mona Lisa,'

Treaty of Lodi

1454 ce

Milan, Florence and Venice allied against the Papal states and the Kingdom of Naples.

Pico della Mirandola

1463 ce - 1494 ce

'Oration on the Dignity of Man'

Niccolo Machiavelli

1469 ce - 1527 ce

Politician and author. Called for Italian political reform in 'The Prince.' Historical study of ancient Rome; 'The Discourses'.


1475 ce - 1564 ce

Painter, Sculptor, Architect, Poet

Baldassare Castiglione

1478 ce - 1529 ce

'The Book of the Courtier'

Francesco Guicciardini

1483 ce - 1540 ce


Charles VIII rules France

1483 ce - 1498 ce

Invaded Naples

Pope Alexander VI

1492 ce - 1503 ce

First exile of the Medici

1494 ce

French invasion, overthrew the Medici and instituted a Republic.

Naples invaded by the French

1494 ce

French invade Naples

1494 ce

Led by Charles VIII

da Vinci's 'Last Supper'

1495 ce - 1497 ce

Michelangelo's 'Pietra'

1497 ce - 1500 ce

Louis XII rules france

1498 ce - 1515 ce

Invaded Milan.

French invade Milan

1499 ce

led by Louis XII

Michelangelo's 'David'

1501 ce - 1504 ce

Michelangelo paints the Sistine Chapel

1508 ce - 1512 ce

Giorgio Vasari

1511 ce - 1574 ce

'Lives of the Artists'

Michelangelo's Tomb of Pope Julius II

1515 ce

Francis I rules France.

1515 ce - 1547 ce

Invaded Italy.

Mercenary Hapsburgs sack Rome

1527 ce

Delayed payment.

St. Peter's Basilica begun.

1546 ce

designed by Michelangelo.

The Northern Renaissance

The Renaissance and Reformation

Jan van Eyck

1390 ce - 1441 ce

Flemish Painter. Used Gothic styles, atmospheric perspective.

Rogier van der Weyden

1400 ce - 1464 ce

Contemporary of Jan van Eyck

Johannes Gutenberg

1400 ce - 1468 ce

Invented the movable type Printing Press

Hieronymus Bosch

1450 ce - 1516 ce

German Painter; Allegorical works.

Printing Press

1450 ce

Aldus Minutius

1450 ce - 1515 ce

Venetian Printer

Albrecht Durer

1471 ce - 1528 ce

Introduced many Italian techniques to Northern Europe, inc. portraiture.

Hans Holbein the Younger

1497 ce - 1543 ce

Contemporary of Albrecht Durer

Pieter Bruegel the Elder

1525 ce - 1569 ce

German Painter; lively and intricate scenes of peasant life.

Christian Humanism

Renaissance and Reformation

Meister Eckhart

1260 ce - 1327 ce

Began a movement to have religious experience in everyday life, known as The Modern Devotion.

Gerard Groote

1349 ce - 1384 ce

Layman who preached the Modern Devotion

Thomas a Kempis

1380 ce - 1471 ce

Wrote 'The Imitation of Christ' which expressed the Modern Devotional movement.

Jacques Lefevre d'Etaples

1450 ce - 1536 CE

French Theologian who hoped to reform the Catholic church from the inside.

Johannes Reuchlin

1455 ce - 1522 ce

German Humanist; studied languages to better understand scripture. Published a Hebrew grammar.

Desiderius Erasmus

1466 ce - 1536 CE

Early reformer, believed in everyday study for all believers.

Thomas More

1478 ce - 1535 CE

English Statesman who criticized society in the satirical essay 'Utopia'.

The Protestant Reformation

The Renaissance and Reformation

Pope John XII

955 ce - 964 ce

Worldly and corrupt Pope

Martin Luther

1483 ce - 1546 ce

Reformer known for his 95 Theses and his other works

Ulrich Zwingli

1484 ce - 1531 ce

Swiss reformer.

Henry VIII

1491 ce - 1547 ce

Requested annulment of his marriage, refused by the Pope. Created the Anglican Church and got his own divorce.

John Calvin

1509 ce - 1564 ce

French Reformer, moved to Geneva Switzerland, Double predestination

John Knox

1513 ce - 1572 ce

Scottish Reformer who established the Presbyterian Church

Pope Leo X

1513 ce - 1521 ce

Medici Pope | Proliferated the use of indulgences to pay for his worldly lifestyle.

95 Theses

1517 ce

Written by Martin Luther against the sale of indulgences.

'On Christian Liberty'

1519 ce

Written by Martin Luther

Diet of Worms

1521 ce

MArtin Luther Refused to recant and was excommunicated.

Pope Clement VII

1523 ce - 1534 ce

refused the divorce of HEnry VIII

German Peasants Revolt

1525 ce

Diet of Speyer

1526 ce

allowed the German Princes freedom of religion

Second Diet of Speyer

1529 ce

Revoked the first

Small Catechism

1529 ce

Lutheran Creed

Schmalkaldic league

1531 ce

Defensive Protestant Alliance

Battle of Kappel

1531 ce

between Swiss Cantons and Forest Cantons. Zwingli served as Chaplain and was killed.

Anglican Church Founded

1532 ce

By Henry VIII

First German Bible

1534 ce

translated by Luther

Institutes of the Christian Religion

1536 ce - 1559 ce

Written by John Calvin

John of Leiden Executed

1536 ce

Anabaptist radical who captured the town of Munster.

Six Articles

1539 ce

Anglican Confession

Edward VI rules

1547 ce - 1553 ce

Reformed the Anglican Church

Peace of Ausburg

1555 ce

Allowed the Princes to Choose Lutheran or Catholic.

Elizabeth I rules

1558 ce - 1603 ce

Reformed the Anglican Church

The Catholic Reformation

The Renaissance and Reformation

St. Ignatius of Loyola

1491 ce - 1556 ce

Founded the Jesuit society

St. Francis Xavier

1506 ce - 1552 ce

A Jesuit Missionary who preached in the Far East.

St. Teresa of Avila

1515 ce - 1582 ce

Rejuvenated the Carmelite order.

Jesuit society founded

1534 ce

Intellectual sect, fanatics of the papacy.

Pope Paul III

1534 ce - 1549 ce

Reformed the Catholic Church

Roman Inquisition founded

1542 ce

Monitored newly published works and censured them.

The Council of Trent

1545 ce - 1563 ce

Met three times, called by Pope Paul III

First 'Index of Prohibited Books'

1559 ce

see Roman Inquisition,

The New Monarchies

The Renaissance and Reformation

Tomas de Torquemada

1420 ce - 1498 ce

Dominican Friar who led much of the Spanish Inqusition.

Mehmet II the Conqueror rules the Turks

1451 ce - 1481 ce

Conquered Constantinople

Wars of the Roses

1455 ce - 1485 ce

In England between the Lancaster and York Houses. Eventually won by the House of Tudor

Louis XI rules Frane

1461 ce - 1483 ce

Hired Swiss Mercenaries to conquer the Burgundians.

Ferdinand and Isabella rule Spain

1469 ce - 1516 ce

Beginning with their marriage and ending with Ferdinand's death. Institutes the Spanish Inquisition and streamlined the bureaucracy.

Spanish Inquisition

1478 ce

Brutal, searched for dissenters, esp. Marranos (Jewish Converts) and Moriscos (Muslim Converts). Stopped protestantism from spreading to Spain.

Richard III rules England

1483 ce - 1485 ce

Last king of the House of York. Defeated by Henry VII.

Charles VIII rules France

1483 ce - 1498 ce

Conquered the Kingdom of Naples.

Henry VII rules England

1485 ce - 1509 ce

Won the Wars of the Roses. Worked with Parliament and streamlined administration. Expanded Trade and limited warfare.

Louis XII rules france

1498 ce - 1515 ce

Conquered Milan

Henry VIII Rules England

1509 ce - 1547 ce

Founded the Anglican Church, boosted nationalism, built English Fleet.

Francis I

1515 ce - 1547 ce

fought the Valois Hapsburg wars.

Charles V (HRE) I (of Spain)

1516 ce - 1558 ce

Emperor starting in 1519 ce.
Abdicated Spanish throne 1556 ce.
Fought the Valois Hapsburg wars.

Suleiman the Magnificent

1520 ce - 1566 ce

Captured Serbia and Hungary. Laid Siege to Vienna.

Francis I captured by Charles V

1525 ce

Treaty of Cambrai

1529 ce

An attempt to end the Valois-Hapsburg wars. Failed.

Charles V invades S. France

1530 ce - 1538 ce

Philip II rules Spain

1556 ce - 1598 ce

Ferdinand I rules HRE

1558 ce - 1564 ce

Holy Roman Empire

Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis

1559 ce

Ended the Valois Hapsburg war, France admitting defeat.

The Age of Exploration

Early Modern Europe

Prince Henry the Navigator

1394 ce - 1460 ce

Portuguese who started the Age of Exploration

Christopher Columbus

1451 ce - 1504 ce

Hired by Spain; discovered the Americas while searching for the Indies

Amerigo Vespucci

1454 ce - 1512 ce

Florentine Explorer who recognized the Americas as continents.

Batolome de Las Casas

1474 ce - 1566 ce

Campaigned against the harsh treatment of the Natives by the Spaniard colonists.

Bartholomew Diaz crossed the Equator

1488 ce


jacques Cartier

1491 ce - 1557 ce

French. Sought NW passage.

Columbus sails

1492 ce

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494 ce

Divided the World between Portuguese and Spanish Empires.

Vasco da Gama sails to India and Back

1497 ce - 1499 ce


Pedro Cabral Claims Brazil

1500 ce

For Portugal

Alsonso de Albuquerque established trading posts

1509 ce - 1515 ce

Portuguese trading posts In India, Indonesia & at the mouth of the Red Sea.

Balboa discovers the Pacific

1513 ce


Americas named

1516 ce

By German Cartographer Martin Waldseemuller after Amerigo Vespucci

Cortez conquers Aztecs

1519 ce - 1521 ce

Spanish Conquistador

Magellan circumnavigates the Globe

1520 ce - 1522 ce

Portuguese hired by Spaniard

Pizzaro conquers Incas

1532 ce - 1533 ce

Spanish Conquistador

De Soto dies exploring Florida

1542 ce

Sir Francis Drake Sails

1577 ce - 1580 ce

Englishman who claimed N. America for the Crown

Jamestown founded

1607 ce

First permanent English settlement

Quebec founded

1608 ce

Founded by French Explorer Samuel de Champlain.

Hudson's famous voyage

1609 ce

Henry Hudson, explored the Hudson river.

Plymouth Colony established

1620 ce

New Amsterdam founded

1624 ce

By the Dutch

The Commercial Revolution

Early Modern Europe

Jacques Coeur

1395 ce - 1456 ce

French merchant and Banker; Powerful in the court of Charles VII

The Russia company is founded

1553 ce

First Major British joint-stock company

Dutch East India Company founded

1602 ce

Traded in Asia

Dutch West India Company Founded

1621 ce

Traded in the Americas and Africa

Early Modern France

Early Modern Europe

Francis I rules

1515 ce - 1547 ce

Expanded the powers of the French monarchy

Concordant of 1516

1516 ce

Allowed the French Monarchy to take over the Church

Henry II rules

1547 ce - 1559 ce

Systemised persecution of Hugenots

Civil war

1562 ce

Over religion

St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

1572 ce

Ordered by Catherine de Medici, against the Huguenots.

Cardinal Richelieu

1585 ce - 1642 ce

Highly active Chief Minister under Louis XIII. Granted limited religious freedom, proponent of Absolutist monarchy.

Henry IV rules

1589 ce - 1610 ce

Huguenot, converted to Catholicism to retain peace. Established the Bourbon Dynasty

Edict of Nantes

1598 ce

Granted Freedom of Religion

Louis XIII rules

1610 ce - 1643 ce

Figurehead, real ruler in Cardinal Richelieu

Edict of Nantes revoked

1628 ce

By Cardinal Richelieu

Early Modern Spain

Early Modern Europe

Philip II rules

1556 ce - 1598 ce

Lost the Netherlands, expanded religious suppression, first major defeat of the Turks.

Netherlands Revolt

1566 ce

Because of intense religious persecution.

Battle of Lepanto

1571 ce

First major victory against the Turks

Annexation of Portugal

1580 ce

Attack on England

1588 ce

Failed, due to a superior English Navy

Early Modern England

Early Modern Europe

Mary I Tudor rules

1553 ce - 1558 ce

Tried to reestablish Catholiscism

Elizabeth I rules

1558 ce - 1603 ce

Reformed the Anglican Church and expanded tolerance of Private religion

Act of Uniformity

1559 ce

Standardized the Anglican faith, differentiating it theologically from the Catholic Faith

Thirty-Nine Articles

1563 ce

Outlined England's theological stance?

Catholic Uprising

1569 ce

Dutch Rebellion

1585 ce - 1587 ce

Mary, Queen of Scots, executed

1587 ce

Spanish fleet destroyed

1588 ce

James I rules

1603 ce - 1625 ce

Persecuted Catholics, KJV,

Guy Fawke's Gunpowder Plot

1605 ce

Assassination attempt because of the persecution of Catholics

King James Bible

1611 ce

Charles I rules

1625 ce - 1649 ce

Absolutist monarch, caused schism, estranged parliament and was executed.

Charles I dismisses Parliament

1629 ce - 1640 ce

in response to the Petition of Right

The Long Parliament

1640 ce - 1653 ce

Civil War

1642 ce - 1649 ce

Tactless treatment of Parliament by the Stuarts

Dutch Independence

Dutch Revolt begins

1566 ce

William the Silent Leads

1572 ce - 1584 ce

Union of Utrecht formed

1579 ce

Northern Dutch provinces

Formal declaration of Indepence

1581 ce


1609 ce - 1621 ce

Treaty of Westphalia

1648 ce

Spain recognizes Dutch independence

The Thirty Years War

Early Modern Europe

Peace of Augsburg

1555 ce

Temporary religious compromise

Evangelical Union

1608 ce

Confederation of Protestant States in Germany

Catholic League

1609 ce

Confederation of Catholic States in Germany

Gustavus Adophus rules

1611 ce - 1632 ce

Swede who conquered much of Germany during the Swedish Phase.

Defenestration of Prague

1618 ce

Protestant revolt against the Catholic rulers of Bohemia

Bohemian Phase

1618 ce - 1625 ce

Catholic supression

Thirty Year's War

1618 ce - 1648 ce

Began as a religious conflict over the rights of Protestants

Danish Phase

1625 ce - 1629 ce

Christian IV of Denmark led attack against the Catholic states, was defeated

Swedish Phase

1630 ce - 1635 ce

Led by Gustavus Apolphus of Sweden, freed Northern Protestant States and conquered southern Catholic States. Victories lost.

Peace of Prague

1635 ce

Ended religious struggles, divided the country and dissolved the Holy Roman Empire.

French Phase

1635 ce - 1648 ce

Dynastic Conflict

Treaty of Westphalia

1648 ce

Redistributed power, dissolved the Holy Roman Empire, left Religion to the rulers.

Early Modern Arts and Sciences

Early Modern Europe

Nicholas Copernicus

1473 ce - 1543 ce

'On the Revolutions of Celestial Orbs' Heliocentric theorist, but had errors.

Hammer of Witches

1486 ce

Written by Dominican Inquisitors, how to find witches


1493 ce - 1541 ce

Alchemist who discovered that foreign bodies cause disease

Francois Rabelias

1494 ce - 1553 ce

Satirical author who criticized society.

Andreas Vesalius

1514 ce - 1564 ce

Dissected cadavers - 'On the Structure of the Human Body'

Jean Bodin

1530 ce - 1596 ce

'Republic', favored absolutist monarchies

Michel de Montaigne

1533 ce - 1592 ce

Skeptical of beliefs without a basis

El Greco

1541 ce - 1614 ce

Mannerist, predecessor to Baroque painting

On the Structure of the Human Body

1543 ce

Tycho Brahe

1546 ce - 1601 ce

Precise observations led to elliptical orbits being discovered.

Miguel de Cervantes

1547 ce - 1616 ce

Satirist; Don Quixote

Micheal Servetus dies

1553 ce

Studied the Pulmonary circulatory system

Francis Bacon

1561 ce - 1626 ce

Mathematician, developed inductive reasoning, empirical methods. Contributed greatly to the Scientific method.

William Shakespeare

1564 ce - 1616 ce

Collection of plays and sonnets

Galileo Galilei

1564 ce - 1642 ce

Popularized the Heliocentric world view

Johannes Kepler

1571 ce - 1630 ce

Discovered elliptical orbits and finished Copernicus's work.


1576 ce

by Jean Bodin


1577 ce - 1640 ce

Dutch Baroque Painter

William Harvey

1578 ce - 1657 ce

Role of the heart in the circulatory system

Hugo Grotius

1583 ce - 1645 ce

Used natural law to outline international law

Thomas Hobbes

1588 ce - 1679 ce

'Leviathan', people need absolute rulers to keep them from depravity.

René Descartes

1596 ce - 1650 ce

Cartesian Coordinates, deductive reasoning, Philosophy = "I think, therefore I am", Reasonable arguments for the existence of God.


1598 ce - 1680 ce

Baroque Sculptor


1599 ce - 1660 ce

Baroque Painter


1606 ce - 1669 ce

Dutch Baroque Painter

Blaise Pascal

1623 ce - 1662 ce

Probability theory, conic theory, atmospheric pressure, Called for spiritual renewal through Janenism

On the law of War and Peace

1625 ce

by Hugo Grotius

'On the Motion of the Heart'

1628 ce

William Harvey


1651 ce

by Thomas Hobbes