English and Scottish Reformations

Reformation in Europe

Martin Luther nails his 95 theses to the door


Luther protests against the corruption in the Church.

The Diet of Worms


Luther is brought before a Church council who asks him to recant, to say that what he has written he now rejects. He responds by saying that he must bow to the authority of the bible alone and is a captive to his conscience. He is excommunicated and now his life is in danger.

Luther publishes his book "The Bondage of the Will"


In this book he argues that salvation is by faith alone, through Christ's atoning death. That justification is a gift and righteousness is imputed not imparted.

Luther publishes the bible in German


Calvin writes "The Institutes"


Calvin writes a systematic theology of reformed Christian thought. It becomes the basis of "Calvinism" and has had a foundational influence on reformed thought today.

Calvin goes to Geneva


Calvin reforms the city of Geneva, its Church and the State. It becomes a refuge for Protestant exiles and sends out Calvinist missionaries.

Lutheran Church established


Reformation in England

Robert Barnes arrested


Barnes was preaching Justification by Faith in England. He was arrested and eventually executed.

Tyndale's New Testament written


It was illegal to translate the bible into English. This is what Tyndale did, then he had to leave England and go into exile. His bible continued to be an influence.

Henry VIII seeks to annul his marriage to Katherine of Aragorn


Henry's legal reforms

1533 - 1539

1533 Act of Restraint of Appeals
1533 Act of Supremacy
1536 The Ten Articles
1536 & 1539 The Dissolution of the monasteries
1538 Injunction that a bible be placed in every Church

The English Act of Supremacy


Henry declares himself head of the Church in England.

Reformation under Edward VI

1547 - 1553

1547 Book of Homilies
1549 Book of Common Prayer
1549 Act of Uniformity. All Churches now have to use the new Prayer Book.
1552 Revised Prayer Book

Mary and the Counter-Reformation

1553 - 1558

1554 Act of Supremacy repealed
1555 Acts of heresy, led many Protestants to be executed.

Reign of Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

1559 Act of Supremacy
1559 Act of Uniformity
1570 Elizabeth excommunicated from Catholic Church
1587 Elizabeth executes her cousin Mary Queen of Scots

James I king of England and Scotland

1603 - 1625

Reformation in Scotland

Lutheran books & Tyndale's bible smuggled in

1520 - 1530

Patrick Hamilton executed


Archbishop Beaton invited him to a debate. Instead, it was a trial and Hamilton was burnt at the stake for heresy.

Rebellion at St Andrews Castle


George Wishart is executed by Archbishop Beaton
Reforming noblemen murder Beaton and take the castle of St Andrews. They wait for English help that never comes.

John Knox

1547 - 1572

1547-1549 Involved in the rebellion at St Andrews Castle imprisoned as a galley slave.
1549-1553 Reformer and chaplain in England under Edward VI
1553-1559 Knox in Geneva
1559 Returns to Scotland to encourage armed support of Reformation
1560 writes the "First Book of Discipline" to reform Church and "Book of Common Order"
1561-1564 Struggle with new Queen, Mary Queen of Scots
1572 Dies

Treaty of Edinburgh


Truce called and Scots Confession of Faith passed by parliament.
Broke with Church of Rome and abolished the mass.
"First Book of Discipline" restructured church along reformed and Presbyterian lines.