Politics before the nation-state:
* Stateless societies (“tribes”) – bands, chiefdoms
* Kingdoms, Empires
* Power and influence was restricted to a small, privileged group, and legitimated by tradition and religion.
Relations with outsiders:
* War, pillage, feuds and alliances
* Exchange of gifts, tributary relations
* Trade existed, but was limited in scope.
European Empires of the Middle Ages:
* Were multi-ethnic, e.g. ‘Holy Roman Empire’ 962-1648 (encompassed modern Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Switzerland, parts of France and Italy)
* Monarch’s right to rule considered to come from God, not from the people
* Monarch’s power (in theory) subordinate to power of the Pope
* Various Kings contested this e.g. Henry VIII of England.