Colorado History

Colorado History

Ute Indians

1500

Ute Indians inhabit mountain areas of southern Rocky Mountains making these Native Americans the oldest continuous residents of Colorado

Coronado explores

1541

Spanish explorer Coronado returns to Mexico after searching the southwest for the Seven Cities of Cibola

La Salle explorers

1682

French explorer La Salle claims eastern part of Colorado for France

Juan Rivera explores

1765

Spanish explorer Juan Rivera leads expedition into San Juan and Sangre de Cristo Mountains looking for gold and silver

Escalante and Dominguez explore

1776

Friars Escalante and Dominguea look for route from Santa Fe to California

Zebulon Pike

1806

President Jefferson sends Lieutenant Zebulon Pike and a small party of soldiers to find the start of the Arkansas River. Pike was arrested by the Spanish and accused of being a spy

Stephen H. Long explores

1820

Major Stephen H. Long sent by President Monroe to explore the southwest boundary of the Louisiana Purchase. This brough him to the northeast portion of Colorado along the South Platte River.

Fur Trade

1825

Opening of era of fur-traders, trappers and Mountain Men

Bent's Fort

1832

Bent's Fort is built in southeast Colorado

John C. Fremont explores

1842

Lieutenant John C. Fremont goes on his first of five exploration trips into the Rocky Mountains

Colorado boundaries formed

1850

Federal government purchases Texas' claims in Colorado and present boundaries of Colorado are formed

First permanent non-Indian settlement

1851

First permanent non-Indian settlement in Colordao is founded at Conejos in San Luis Valley, irrigation is begun for farming

John W. Gunnison explores

1853

Captain John W. Gunnison explorers southern and western Colorado looking for a route to build railroads.

Gold discovered

1858

Green Russell discovers gold near where the South Platte River and Cherry Creek meet (downtown Denver)

Gold Rush begins

1859

Gold discovered near Idaho Springs....gold rush begins

Colorado Territory is established

1861

Colorado Territory is established. Population - 25,371

La Glorieta Pass

1862

Colorado troops help defeat Confederate Army at La Glorieta Pass, New Mexico

Telegraph Line

1863

Telegraph line links Denver wiht the East. Plains Indians attempt to drive white intruders from their hunting lands on the Eastern Slopes.

Sand Creek Massacre

1864

Sand Creek Massacre - Colonel Chivington orders attack on Cheyenne and Arapahoe Indian encampment near Bent's Fort.

First Smelter built

1865

Nathaniel Hill builds first smelter in colorado to start hard-rock mining.

Fort Mortan established

1865

Indian attacks along trails reach highest intensity; food is scarce for settlers and prices are high. Fort Morgan established for protection against Indians.

Railroad constructed and Union Colony established

1870

Denver and Pacific Railroad is constructed to connect Denver with Union Pacific and Cheyenne, Wyoming.

Union Colony Established

1870

Horace Greeley and Nathan C. Meeker establish Union Colony and present day Greeley.

Population 39,864

1870

Colorado Springs Founded

1871

Colorado Springs founded

Colorado the 38th State

1876

Colorado admitted to Union as 38th State.

Leadville is incorporated

1878

Leadville is incorporated; rich silver strikes discovered

FIrst telephone in Denver

1878

Nathan C. Meeker killed

September 29, 1879

Nathan C. Meeker and several employees are killed near Meeker by Utes. Major Thornburg and half of his 160 soldiers are killed in an effort to protect Meeker. Utes are defeated.

Population 194,327

1880

Population of Colorado - 194,327

Ute tribes removed; Grand Junction founded

1881

Ute tribes are removed onto reservations. Grand Junction founded.

Montrose established

1882

Montrose established.

Teller institute built

1885

Teller Institute built in Grand Junction.

Sherman Silver Purchase Act; Population 413,249

1890

Passage of Sherman Silver Purchase Act raised price of silver. New rich silver strikes are made.

Population 413,249

1890

Gold discovered at Cripple Creek

1891

Robert Womack discovers gold at Cripple Creek.

Repeal of Sherman Act

1893

Repeal of Sherman Act shuts down silver mining.

State Capitol complete; Women allowed to vote

1894

State Capitol completed for $2,500,000. Second state to allow women to vote (women's suffrage) following Wyoming.

Gold production reaches peak; population 539,700

1900

Gold production in Cripple Creek reaches peak of $20,000,000 annually. Second largest gold camp in the world. Population - 539,700.

Mine workers strike

1903

Mine, mill, smelter workers strike for higher wages and better working conditions; at Cripple Creek, strike results in much property damage and loss of life.

3 Governors; Gunnison Tunnel started

1905

Colorado has 3 Governors in one day. Gunnison Tunnel construction started.

US Mint, Denver

1906

United States Mint, Denver, issues first coins.

Population 799,024; Farms 46,170

1910

Population - 799,024. Farms - 46,170

Battle of Ludlow

1914

Strike of coal miners in southern Colroado fields is climaxed by "Battle of Ludlow" near Trinidad.

Emily Griffin Opportunity School

1916

Emily Griffin Opportunity School opens in Denver.

Ag production increases; Germany surrenders

1918

Agriculture production increases to help war effort; dry lands plowed up to produce wheat. Germany surrendrs.

Population 939,629

1920

Population - 939,629

Farmers struggle financially

1921

Farmers struggle financially

Child Labor Amendment

1924

Approve child labor amendment to the US Constitution.

Population over 1 million

1931

Population over 1 million.

Military installations increases

1941 - 1945

Growth of military installations in Colorado increases.

Amache established

1942

Federal government established Amache, a camp for Japanese-Americans who were interned and relocated from their homes on the West Coast.

Air Force Academy built

1958

Air Force Academy is built near Colorado Springs.

Denver Broncos Football Team

1960

Colorado gets the Denver Broncos professional football team.

Denver Rockets Basketball Team

1967

Denver Rockets become Colroado's professional basketball team. In 1974 they are renamed Denver Nuggets.

Desegregation begins in Denver

1974

Desegregation of schools in Denver begins as busing attempts to achieve racial balance.

Technological industry growth

1980 - 1999

Major growth of technological industries occurs in Colroado.

Coal Mining on Western Slope peaks

1980

Coal Mining on Western Slope hits all time high.

Exxon closes development fields

1982

Oil Shale giant Exxon closes oil shale development fields in western Colorado causing a bust.

Colroado Rockies Baseball Team

1993

Colorado Rockies become first regional Major League Baseball team.

Colorado Avalanche Hockey Team

1995

Quebec Nordiques National Hockey League Team moves to Colorado to become the Colorado Avalanche.

United States History

John Cabot explores

1497

John Cabot claims North America for England

World wide exploration

1500 - 1600

Worldwide exploration going on throughout this time

Amerigo Vespucci explores

1501

Amerigo Vespucci explores the coast of South America

Walter Raleigh explores

1585

Walter Raleigh receives the patent to explore adn settle in North America; Virginia colony of Roanoke established

Captain John Smith

1607

Captain John Smith explorer and founder of Jamestown

French and Indian war

1754 - 1763

Also known as the Seven Years War...King George III issued a proclamation to organzie the new North American empire and stabilize relations with Native Americans. No British settlements were allowed west of the Appalachian Mountains. Settleres already in these areas were required to return east

The Stamp Act and Quartering Act

1765

The Stamp Act required colonists to pay a tax on items from Britain that had the British stamp on them. The Quartering Act required colonists to house British troops and supply them with food

Stamp Act repealed

1766

Boston Massacre

1770

Four workers were shot by British troops in Boston.

Boston Tea Party

1773

This was a protest against the tax on tea imposed by the British

American Revolutionary War

1775 - 1784

The War of Indenpendence was let by George Washington
End with the signing of the Treaty of Paris which recongnized American independence.

Declaration of Independence

1776

Thomas Jefferson presents the US with the Declaration of Independence

Articles of Confederation

1777

An agreement between the first 13 states that established the United States of America and also served as their first constitution

France signs treaty with US

1778

France signs a treaty alliance with the United States and the American Revolution soon becomes a world war

US Constitution

1787

The supreme law of the United States

First President of US

1789

First president of the United States is George Washington and the US has 13 states

Various acts passed

1790 - 1800

Various acts are passed as our country is deciding how it will be ran. Included: Judiciary Act, Bill of Rights ratified, Fugitive Slave Act, Logan Act

Louisiana Purchase

1803

President Thomas Jefferson acquires land from France (Napoleon Bonaparte)

Exploration of Lousiana Purchase

1804

Meriwether Lewis and William Clark explore the Louisiana Purchase.

US Slave trade with Africa ends

1808

War of 1812

1812 - 1815

The United States declared war in 1812 for several reasons, including trade restrictions brought about by Britain's ongoing war with France, the impressment of American merchant sailors into the Royal Navy, British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion, outrage over insults to national honor after humiliations on the high seas, and possible American desire to annex Canada.[

5 more states

1818

Tennessee, Ohio, Louisiana, Indiana, and Mississippi

Indian removal act

1830

Indian Removal Act--The Indian Removal Act was signed into law by President Andrew Jackson on May 28, 1830. The act authorized him to negotiate with the Indians in the Southern United States for their removal to federal territory west of the Mississippi River in exchange for their homelands.

Oregon Trail opens

1830

Texas War for Independence

1835 - 1836

The military conflict between the government of Mexico and Texas colonists

Texas independent republic

1836

Texas becomes an indepndent republic and claims narrow strip of mountain territory extending north through Colordao

Trail of Tears

1838 - 1839

In 1838 and 1839, as part of Andrew Jackson's Indian removal policy, the Cherokee nation was forced to give up its lands east of the Mississippi River and to migrate to an area in present-day Oklahoma. The Cherokee people called this journey the "Trail of Tears," because of its devastating effects. The migrants faced hunger, disease, and exhaustion on the forced march. Over 4,000 out of 15,000 of the Cherokees died.

Mexican-American War

1846 - 1848

war between the United States and Mexico (April 1846–February 1848) stemming from the United States’ annexation of Texas in 1845 and from a dispute over whether Texas ended at the Nueces River (Mexican claim) or the Rio Grande (U.S. claim). The war—in which U.S. forces were consistently victorious—resulted in the United States’ acquisition of more than 500,000 square miles (1,300,000 square km) of Mexican territory extending westward from the Rio Grande to the Pacific Ocean.

Oregon Treaty signed

1846

The Oregon Treaty[1] is a treaty between the United Kingdom and the United States that was signed on June 15, 1846, in Washington, D.C. The treaty brought an end to the Oregon boundary dispute by settling competing American and British claims to the Oregon Country, which had been jointly occupied by both Britain and the U.S. since the Treaty of 1818

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

1848

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is signed and Mexico cedes to United States most of Colorado that was not part of the Louisiana Purchase

Gold discovered in California

1848

Civil War

1861 - 1865

Homestead Act

1862

The Homestead Act, enacted during the Civil War in 1862, provided that any adult citizen, or intended citizen, who had never borne arms against the U.S. government could claim 160 acres of surveyed government land. Claimants were required to “improve” the plot by building a dwelling and cultivating the land. After 5 years on the land, the original filer was entitled to the property, free and clear, except for a small registration fee. Title could also be acquired after only a 6-month residency and trivial improvements, provided the claimant paid the government $1.25 per acre. After the Civil War, Union soldiers could deduct the time they had served from the residency requirements.

Abraham Lincoln assassinated

April 14, 1865

Chinese Exclusion Act

1882

The Chinese Exclusion Act, signed into law on May 6, 1882, by President Chester A. Arthur, effectively halted Chinese immigration for ten years and prohibited Chinese from becoming US citizens. Through the Geary Act of 1892, the law was extended for another ten years before becoming permanent in 1902.

Wounded Knee Massacre

December 29, 1890

The Wounded Knee Massacre occurred on December 29, 1890,[4] near Wounded Knee Creek (Lakota: Čhaŋkpé Ópi Wakpála) on the Lakota Pine Ridge Indian Reservation in South Dakota, USA. It was the last battle of the American Indian war. By the time it was over, at least 150 men, women, and children of the Lakota Sioux had been killed and 51 wounded (4 men, 47 women and children, some of whom died later); some estimates placed the number of dead at 300.

Spanish-American War

April 25, 1898 - December 10, 1898

On April 25, 1898 the United States declared war on Spain following the sinking of the Battleship Maine in Havana harbor on February 15, 1898. The war ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on December 10, 1898. As a result Spain lost its control over the remains of its overseas empire -- Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines Islands, Guam, and other islands.

Wright Brothers fly

December 17, 1903

The Wright brothers, Orville (August 19, 1871 – January 30, 1948) and Wilbur (April 16, 1867 – May 30, 1912), were two American brothers, inventors, and aviation pioneers who were credited[1][2][3] with inventing and building the world's first successful airplane and making the first controlled, powered and sustained heavier-than-air human flight, on December 17, 1903

Ford Model T

1908

Ford Model T marketed

Titanic Sinks

April 15, 1912

At 2:20 a.m. on April 15, 1912, the British ocean liner Titanic sinks into the North Atlantic Ocean about 400 miles south of Newfoundland, Canada. The massive ship, which carried 2,200 passengers and crew, had struck an iceberg two and half hours before.

World War I

1914 - 1918

Indian Reorganization Act

1924

Indian Reorganization Act, also called Wheeler–Howard Act, (June 18, 1934), measure enacted by the U.S. Congress, aimed at decreasing federal control of American Indian affairs and increasing Indian self-government and responsibility.

The Reorganization Act remains the basis of federal legislation concerning Indian affairs. The act’s basic aims were reinforced in the 1960s and ’70s by the further transfer of administrative responsibility for reservation services to the Indians themselves, who continued to depend on the federal government to finance those services.

Great Depression

1929 - 1941

Historical Importance of the Great Depression: The Great Depression, an immense tragedy that placed millions of Americans out of work, was the beginning of government involvement in the economy and in society as a whole.

Dust Bowl

1932 - 1937

The Dust Bowl, or the Dirty Thirties, was a period of severe dust storms causing major ecological and agricultural damage to American and Canadian prairie lands in the 1930s, particularly in 1934 and 1936.

WWII begins

1939 - 1945

Germany invades Poland and begins WWII. The US is not yet directly involved in the war

Attack on Pearl Harbor

December 7, 1941

a surprise military strike conducted by the Imperial Japanese Navy against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, on the morning of December 7, 1941 (December 8 in Japan). The attack was intended as a preventive action in order to keep the U.S. Pacific Fleet from interfering with military actions the Empire of Japan was planning in Southeast Asia against overseas territories of the United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and the United States.

Cold War

1945 - 1991

Between the United States and the Soviet Union...The Cold War was so named as it never featured direct military action, since both East and West possessed nuclear weapons, and because their use would probably guarantee their mutual assured destruction. However both repeatedly engaged in indirect confrontations through proxy wars. The cycles of relative calm would be followed by high tension which could have led to war.

Atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasako

August 6, 1945

On August 6, 1945, the United States used a massive, atomic weapon against Hiroshima, Japan. This atomic bomb, the equivalent of 20,000 tons of TNT, flattened the city, killing tens of thousands of civilians. While Japan was still trying to comprehend this devastation three days later, the United States struck again, this time, on Nagasaki.

Korean War

1950 - 1953

Russia launchs Sputnik

October 4, 1957

The first artificial Earth satellite...The Soviet Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth orbit on 4 October 1957. The surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis, began the Space Age and triggered the Space Race, a part of the larger Cold War. The launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments.[2][3]

Vietnam War

1961 - 1973

Martin Luther King Jr. speech

August 28, 1963

"I Have a Dream" is a 17-minute public speech by Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered on August 28, 1963, in which he called for an end to racism in the United States. The speech, delivered to over 200,000 civil rights supporters from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial during the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, was a defining moment of the American Civil Rights Movement.[1]

Civil Rights Act

1964

a landmark piece of legislation in the United States[1] that outlawed major forms of discrimination against racial, ethnic, national and religious minorities, and women. It ended unequal application of voter registration requirements and racial segregation in schools, at the workplace and by facilities that served the general public

Neil Armstrong walks on the moon

July 1969

Persian Gulf War

1990 - 1991

Oklahoma City bombing

April 19, 1995

The Oklahoma City bombing was a terrorist bomb attack on the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in downtown Oklahoma City on April 19, 1995.

War in Afghanistan

2001 - 2012

Terrorist Attack

September 11, 2001

Terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center and The Pentagon

War in Iraq

2003 - 2011