1642 - 1727

Sir Isaac Newton was an English scientist. He discovered the laws gravity and developed laws of physics and calculus (a really difficult type of math).

1651 - 1794

Thomas Hobbes - The people give the power to the government
John Locke - Natural Rights - life, liberty and property
Baron De Montesqieu - Checks and Balances
Voltaire - Social Justice
Thomas Pain - The Age of Reason


The Royal Society was a group of scientists who began to perform experiments for general viewing. They helped bring science to ordinary people.

1698 - 1820
1740 - 1786

King Frederick ruled Prussia (Germany today) and believed in "Enlightened Absolutism", which meant he tried to be a King of the people.

1741 - 1790

Emperor Joseph II believed in being an "Enlightened Despot" which meant he tried to make life better for his people while still remaining King. He tried to provide education and free land and peasants so that the poor could advance and make money.


French Encyclopédie of Denis Diderot (published 1751–1766) published followed by Encyclopedia Britannica in 1768.

1776 - 1783

The American Revolution was a war between England and it's - then - colonies in America. After nearly a decade of battles, the colonists won the war and signed the Treaty of Paris, which decreed America's freedom and George Washington became the first president of the United States of America.

1789 - 1799

The French Revolution was a bloody time period in which the rebels of France were angry that their King and Queen didn't care about the common people. In 1795 the National Convention approved a new constitution and the revolution finally ended when Napolean Bonaparte declared himself France's "first consul."