WHAP Fall Final Study Guide

Civilizations from 3,000,000 BCE to 1500 CE

Middle East

Beginning of Agriculture!

8000 BCE

Agriculture = grain
Grain = flour
Flour = cake
I like cake.
I like agriculture.
Agriculture = settled communities
Animals = diseases
Less varied diet
Longer work, but more reliable food source

Jericho

8000 BCE - 7000 BCE

8000 BCE = round, mud-brick structures
7000 BCE = rectangular rooms w/ plastered walls, floors, wide doorways, and central courtyards
Stone wall, as defense from invasion by local pastoralists?

Invention of the Wheel and Plough

3500 BCE

In Mesopotamia

Early Dynastic (Sumerians)

3000 BCE - 2350 BCE

Lugal = "Big Man", or King
responsible for upkeep/building of temples/ performing rituals
maintain city walls/defenses, extend/repair irrigation channels, preserve property rights, protect people
Epic of Gilgamesh

First Cities founded in Sumeria

3000 BCE

Code of Hammurabi
Sanskrit scriptures
Hebrew scriptures
Zoroastrianism

Akkadian (Semetic peoples)

2350 BCE - 2230 BCE

Akkadian = language
Sargon, "King of Sumer and Akkad", first to unite cities under control of 1 king and capital
Cuneiform adapted to express their language

Third Dynasty of Ur (Sumerian)

2112 BCE - 2004 BCE

5 kings who ruled for 1 century
expanding bureaucracy of administrators
tight govt control and "obsessive" recordkeeping
messengers = rapid communication
official calendar, standardized weights and measures, uniform writing

Abraham

2000 BCE

Born in 20th century BCE
Founder of Judaism, Islam, important in Christianity
Sons = Isaac and Ishmael

Old Babylonian (Semetic)

1900 BCE - 1600 BCE

Hammurabi (r. 1792 - 1750) = aggressive military campaigns
Babylon became capital of "Old Babylonian" state
Hammurabi had "Law Code" written down
Long distance trade, boats, etc.

Moses

1600 BCE

Moses is estimated to have been born anytime between 16th century BCE and 13th century BCE.
He is said to have led the Israelites out of Egypt.
Most prominent in Judaism, important in Islam and Christianity

Jerusalem

1000 BCE - 587 BCE

Captured and made capital by King David
Captured 587 BCE by Neo-Assyrian Empire

Assyrian Empire

911 BCE - 612 BCE

Neo-Assyrian and Neo-Babylonian
Conquest and expansion
Fear tactics- mass deportation, exploit wealth/resources
Provincial officials
Library of Ashurbanipal

Carthage

814 BCE - 146 BCE

9th century expansion of Phoenicia leads to founding of Carthage

Americas

Olmec

1200 BCE - 400 BCE

Giant head sculptures
Small on Atlantic coast in Mexico, influenced to Pacific coast
Corn, beans, squash
Social stratification
Irrigation/ drainage canals, raised fields, large scale buildings
Skilled artisans- jade figurines, necklaces, ceremonial stuff
Merchants traded jade, pottery, obsidian
Not an empire!

Chavin

900 BCE - 250 BCE

Andes civilization, first S. American urban center
Trade may have relied on military force
Politically/ economically dominant, influential
Roads, bridges, temples, palaces, irrigation/drainage projects
LLAMAS for transport and MEAT (EWWW) and wool
Metallurgy

Pachacuti Inca

1438

Founded the Inca Empire

Europe

Minoans

2000 BCE - 1450 BCE

On island of Crete, named after King Minos
Widespread trade
Undeciphered language
Mycenaeans destroyed? Took over Cnossus (city)

Mycenaeans

1600 BCE - 1150 BCE

Many cities, including Pylos, Tiryns, Iolcus, Athens and Thebes
Writing system = Linear B (deciphered)
Power from trade, piracy, mercenaries

Persian Empire

1000 BCE - 323 BCE

Cyrus overthrows Medes, take over Lydia, Babylonia
Darius
Cambyses, conquers Egypt
Xerxes, invades Greece
Defeated by Alexander the Great (Phillip of Macedonia's son)

GREECE

800 BCE - 317 BCE

Hoplites
Solon reforms laws
Athenians stop Persians at Marathon
Athenians = leader of Delian league
Pericles, democracy
Peloponnesian War (Persians vs. Greeks)
Philip of Macedonia takes control of Greece

ROMAN REPUBLIC

507 BCE - 31 BCE

You should know this. I'm not covering all this.

Celtic People Migrate

500 BCE

Not a state or empire, just close kinship groups
Priests = Druids
Successful agriculturalists
Very stereotypical (think Brave, etc.)

Beginning of Greek Golden Age

500 BCE

Greek plays and important stuff

Socrates

469 BCE

Greek Philosopher

Aristotle

384 BCE

Greek philosopher

Roman Empire

14 CE - 476 CE

Caesar Augustus
Blah blah blah
Diocletian divides
Constantine and capital to Byzantium/Constantinople

Christianity

32 CE

Jesus dies and his disciples spread Christianity and send out missionaries and whatnot

End of Pax Romana

180 CE

Constantine converts to Christianity

312 CE

Very important
Byzantine Empire and Constantinople

Constantinople

333

Roman capital moves to Constantinople

Justinian

483 CE

Emperor of the Byzantine Empire
Sought to revive the "greatness" of Roman Europe and conquer the western half of the Roman Empire

Justinian rule Byzantine Empire

527

Muhammad

Approx. 570

Founder of Islam
"Last Messenger of God"
Left no successor
Did not write down his words, were recorded after his death in the Quran

Africa

Invention of Sail

3500 BCE

In Egypt

Invention of Writing

3200 BCE

In Mesopotamia
Originally for economic purposes

Early Dynastic Egypt

3100 BCE - 2575 BCE

Small states unified by Menes, 3100 BCE

Old Kingdom

2575 BCE - 2134 BCE

King was divinely chosen to maintain ma'at, or order/balance
King was source of justice/law, so no written law
Memphis = capital
Complex bureaucracy record land, labor, products, people, taxes
Hieroglyphics (writing system) on papyrus
Officials elected, buried near king
Centralized

Middle Kingdom Egypt

2040 BCE - 1640 BCE

Isolationist foreign policy
Thebes = more prominent
New middle class of administrators
Forces struck south into Nubia, extending border

Hammurabi

1972 BCE

Hammurabi comes to power in Old Babylonian Egypt
Had Code of Law written down
Aggressive military campaigns

Kush

1750 BCE - 1500 BCE

In Nubia
Destroyed by Egypt 1500 BCE (during New Kingdom)

New Kingdom Egypt

1532 BCE - 1070 BCE

Princes of Thebes after century of foreign rule (Hyskos)
No longer isolationist, are expansionist and aggressive
Hatshepsut, Amenhotep = Akhenaten, spreads belief in Aten, sun god, Ramesses II (the Great)

Alexander the Great

323 BCE

Conquered Egypt
Son of Philip of Macedonia

Saladin

1138

Founded the Ayyubid dynasty
First Sultan of Egypt and Syria
A Kurdish Muslim

Mansa Musa

1280

Emperor of Mali Empire
Went on a pilgrimage to Mecca
Very rich
Founded Mosques which helped people learn/become literate

Ibn Battuta

Approx. 1304

A Muslim Moroccan explorer
Wrote the Rihla, a story of his journeys

Asia and Oceania

Catal Huyuk

7000 BCE - 5000 BCE

Central Anatolia (Turkey)
Plastered mud-brick rooms, elaborately decorated
Outer walls of houses formed continuous wall
Long distance trade in obsidian
Craftwork important- made pottery, wove baskets, worked leather and wood
No evidence of political structure/ dominant class

Indus Valley

2600 BCE - 1900 BCE

Harrappa and Mohenjo-Daro = two great cities
Modern day Pakistan
Undeciphered writing system
Major urban centers w/ walls, streets in grid pattern, sewage system, uniform/regulatory sizes
Strong central authority
Metal mostly used for tools rather than jewelry, etc.
Great technology (irragation, kiln baked bricks, bronze)
Widespread trading

Xia Dynasty (Mythical)

2100 BCE - 1600 BCE

MYTHICAL
Said to have ruled the core region of the Yellow River Valley
Identified by some archaeologists as the Neolithic Longshan cultural complex

Shang Dynasty

1750 BCE - 1027 BCE

2000 BCE = Bronze Metallurgy
Prominent class = warrior
Several capitals, most important = Anyang
King ruled core, nobles/royal family ruled outer, most distant regions = native rules who pledged allegiance to king (decentralized)
Long distance trade
Divination, kings = indispensable divine intermediaries

Zhou Period

1027 BCE - 221 BCE

Divided into two periods: Western Zhou (1046-771 BCE) and Eastern Zhou (771-256 BCE)
Mandate of Heaven
Decline in divination, bloody sacrifice, elaborate burial
Sophisticated administration
Very decentralized
Eastern Zhou 771 BCE, capital moves to Luoyang (in the East)
Political fragmentation = Warring States Period
Legalism, Daoism, Confucism, yin and yang, etc.

Historic Buddha

563 BCE

Founded Buddhism in India

Confucius

551 BCE

Founded Confucianism

Buddhism and Jainism

500 BCE

Warring States Period

475 BCE - 221 BCE

During end of Zhou period
After the Spring and Autumn period (770-475 BCE)
Ended with the fall of the Zhou and foundation of the Qin
Confucius lived during this time (551-479 BCE)

Laozi

400 BCE

Daoism
Yin Yang

Maurya Empire

324 BCE - 184 BCE

India
Founded by Chandragupta Maurya
Centralized
ASHOKA- expanded then became Buddhist
Political fragmentation = end

Ashoka

304 BCE

Mauryan Emperor in India
Expanded rapidly, but saw the consequences (death) and converted to Buddhism
Promoted nonviolence and Buddhism

Qin

221 BCE - 206 BCE

After Warring States Period
Centralized administration
Standardized writing, weights and measures
Harsh methods of rule
Suppressed dissenting thought
Used resources too fast, too many projects
Followed by Han Dynasty

Han China

206 BCE - 220 CE

After Warring States Period and Qin
Divided into Western/Former Han (206 BCE to 9 CE) and Eastern/Later Han (25-220 CE)
Modified/consolidated foundation of the imperial order
Confucianism established as orthodoxy
Civil service examinations
Power reached Korea and Vietnam
Records of the Historian
Daoism
Capital = Chang'an
Son of Heaven/Mandate of Heaven
Nomadic group attacks helped decline

Jesus of Nazareth

0 CE

Claimed to be the Son of the Jewish God
Crucified on a cross 32 CE
Founded Christianity
Disciples spread belief

Six Dynasties Period

220 CE - 589 CE

Political fragmentation
North dominated by nomad groups (same that helped decline)
South ruled by successive dynasties
Buddhism SPREAD

Constantine

February 27, 272 AD

Emperor of Byzantine Empire
Converted to Christianity
Moved capital to Byzantium (Constantinople)

Gupta Empire

320 CE - 550 CE

Founded by Chandra Gupta (purposely was a copy cat)
Theater-state
Never very centralized

Sui Dynasty

581 CE - 618 CE

Unified China again
Reestablished Confucianism as central government philosophy
Buddhism = strong political influence
Daoism, Nestorian Christianity, Islam also present
Built new Chang'an as capital
1,100 mile Grand Canal for trade/communication w/ South
Speed/scale of projects/construction/whatever may have lead to fall

Tang Empire

618 CE - 907 CE

Li family ended Sui rule and founded Tang
Expanded westward but not east under Li Shimin
Not overly centralized, allowed local nobles/officials power
Formidable army
Confucianism also central gov philosophy but LOTS of Buddhist influence
Tributary system centered around Chang'an
Over expanded
Defeated by Arabs 751, stopped expansion
Afterwards not enough monetary/moral support, fell

Song Dynasty

960 - 1279

Divided into Northern (960-1127) and Southern (1127-1279)
Many economic and social changes
Monetization of the economy
Growth in commerce/trade
Urban expansion
Technological innovations
Examination system

Ghengis Khan

1162

The Great Khan
Lead Mongols
Began period of Mongol conquering and rule

Khubilai Khan

September 23, 1215

Founder of Yuan Dynasty

Marco Polo

september 15, 1254

Explorer/merchant
Helped introduce Europeans to Asians

Yuan

1279 - 1368

Founded by Mongols/ Kublilai/Great Khan
Created new capital at present-day Beijing
Theater state

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

Founded by Zhu Yuanzhang (AKA Hongwu)
Authoritarian political culture
Early expansion
Used Confucianism to justify war on Mongols in empire
Yongle renovated Forbidden City (Beijing capital)
Zheng He is a Muslim who goes exploring
adds 50 new tributary states but doesn't increase long distance trade w/ them

Zheng He

1371

Muslim explorer during the Ming Empire
Knew about Middle East b/c dad and grandfather's pilgrimages to Mecca
Good ambassador b/c of faith

Qing (Ch'ing) Dynasty

1644 - 1912

A Manchu dynasty
Continued economic developments of late Ming
Prosperous but complacent
Population DRAMATICALLY increased
Political decrease
Rapid incorporation of new territories = more strain
Authoritarian structure was unable to met military and cultural challenges of the expansive West
19th century Opium Wars and Taiping Rebellion damaged political strength

Republic Period (China)

1912 - 1949

Weak central government after dynastic system collapse
Western influence (promotion of science and democracy), New Culture Movement
Sun Yat-Sen and Chiang Kai-Shek = important rulers
Nationalist gov failed to bring entire country under control 1928, fled to Taiwan after Communist defeat

People's Republic of China

1949 - 12/21/2012

Communism
Mao Ze Dong and Deng Xiaoping and all the Kim Jongs
Attempts to "remake" society end in disasters (Great Leap Forward, Cultural Revolution)
Economic reform to captialism 1978
1989 Tiananmen Square massacre
1997 Hong Kong returned to China from Britain

Neolithic Cultures and Misc.

Invention of Ironworking

700 BCE

Iron Age and stuff

Beginnings of Confuscianism, Buddhism, Daosim

400 BCE