According to classical sources, the war began after the abduction of Queen Helen of Sparta by the Trojan prince Paris. Helen’s jilted husband Menelaus convinced his brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, to lead an expedition to retrieve her. In the end the Greeks won by using the Trojan Horse to sneak inside the walled city. The Trojans lost the whole city because the Greeks torched the city and the Greeks got Helen back but then the hung her due to loving the Trojan prince Paris.
In the past there were a lot of conflict with the Sparta and Messenian but there was one thing that triggered it all. happened with the Spartan Euphaenos and the Messenian Polychares, a distinguished citizen and an Olympic victor, 764 B.C. Euphaenos, who had been trusted with the care of Polychares cows, sold them and later killed his son who came to inquire. Polychares, who was unable to find justice in Sparta, started to kill every Lacedaemonian who passed the borders. After these incidents, Spartans demanded from Messenians to deliver Polychares, but in vain and so the war started. Alkamenes, the son of the king Teleklos of Sparta, in a dark night surprised the Messenians and entered the city of Ampheia, near the Laconian boarder, killing everybody. From Ampheia, the Spartans were making constants raids, but they did not succeed to conquer any other cities. This war lasted many years but it finally ended in a Spartan victory. The Spartans gained lots of slaves,food and the loyalty of the Messenian. And the Messenian people pretty much lost it all.
Darius I, King of Persia, decided he wanted to conquer the Greeks in 490 BC. He gathered a vast army of soldiers that outnumbered any army the Greeks could muster. They boarded the Persian fleet and headed to Greece. After the battle the Greeks lost 192 people while the Persians had heavy losses of 6,000 people. No one gained much after the battle. The Persians came home defeated while the Greeks were just happy the held there land to an army that outnumbered them 10 to 1. Some hero's of this war are Leonidas at Thermopylae and many more.
Ten years later, in 480 BC, the son of Darius I, King Xerxes, decided to get his revenge on the Greeks. He got together a huge army of over 200,000 soldiers and 1,000 warships. The Greeks put together a small force, led by the Spartan King Leonidas the First and 300 Spartans. They decided to meet the Persians at a narrow pass in the mountains called Thermopylae to stop them from further marching. The Greeks held off the Persians killing thousands, until the Persians found a way around the mountains and got behind the Greeks. King Leonidas told most of his troops to retreat and run but he stayed behind with a small force including 300 brave Spartans to hold of the Persian army while he let his bigger army escape. The Spartans fought to the death, killing as many Persians as they could. In the end the Greeks won just barely with there fleet of fast and ramming ships. Sparta lost a lot of there army and Greece lost lots of ships but in the end Persia lost 2 thirds of there fleet and a chunk of there army. Here are some hero's, King Leonidas, the 300 spartan soldiers that stayed behind.
Athens and Sparta were both very powerful cities and lots of military support and wee allies for the Greco-Persian war. But after the years Athens grew even more powerful and Sparta got worried. Then they broke in war. In the end Sparta won and Athens lost. But after the war it left Athens bankrupt, tired and demoralized. And also after the war both cities armies were weaker and never the same. Some hero's were, Thebes and others.
He became king in 336 B.C. He was also involved in the battle of Issus,Tyre. He also conquers Egypt and then also becomes king of Persia. Ten in the end he also conquers India and kills many that are plotting against him. He finally dies at a ripe age of 32.