Not long after the implementation of penitentiaries, reformers were realising just how ineffective they were. None of the prisons had made the rehabilitation of prisoners even close to being a goal, and brutality was a sadly common theme. Thus, during this time we see the rise of the mark system, in which penalties were based on the severity of the crime, and prisons would work with inmates to advance them to certain levels until they were fully ready to return to society. As the inmates went along, they would earn "positive marks" in their favor. After reaching so many, they would be transferred to the next level, and the next until they were well-adjusted enough to be freed. 1876 was also the year that Elmira Reformatory was built. Designed for first-time offenders between 16 and 30, it was like an upgraded version of a prison, not only having a rigid work schedule, but also implementing the marks system and even holding classes for inmates.