The Industrial Revolution was a time from 1750 to 1850 where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, transportation, and technology came to effect citizens in Great Britain. It then spread through Western Europe and eventually to North America and the rest of the world.
J.S. Mill was a British philosopher and economist. He was involved in social theory and liberal political philosophy. He was also part of parliament and the liberal party. While doing so, he looked to find problems in and inductive approach to science.
The Journal des Economistes was produced for over a century in Paris by many generations of authors. It has been known to be the greatest liberal journal published anywhere.
In 1842, The Chartist Movement caused one of the largest strikes of the 19th century. Because of the brutal work conditions of industrial Britain, 3.5 million people stopped working, and they all sent a petition to the British parliament asking for universal suffrage, equal sized electoral districts, privacy while voting, and elections each year.
The Spring of Nations, also known as the Year of Revolution, were many political revolutions in Europe during the year of 1848. The revolutionists were calling for a change which connects with liberal beliefs.
The Liberal Party was officially formed in Britain in 1859 with certain Radical and Whig elements. This party in Britain elected William Gladstone, one of the greatest prime ministers, who led many reforms in Britain including education.
Liberalism in Europe, in the beginning, protected individuals from oppressive governments. In the late 19th century, however, liberalism began to use government to enable individuals to achieve a better life. This came, in part, because of the liberal ideas, or changes, that were brought about.
Throughout France in 1968, 10 million workers took part in a strike and, ultimately, brought the government to its knees, because they demanded changes for the better with working conditions and salaries.
Von Metternich created the "Concept of Europe." This was a system that encouraged people to fight the the tide of thought and change. He believed that the lesser the change, the better.
The Congress of Vienna was a peace conference in 1814 and reached a peace settlement in 1815. It was based on conservative views of Metternich, Castlereagh, Talleyrand, and tsar Alexander I.
With Germany united after the Franco-Prussian War, Otto von Bismarck rose high in European politics. His ideas of "revolutionary conservatism" led to popular ideas with labor and wages. These policies of his made him very famous during his lifetime.
The Conservative Revolutionary was based in Germany and was a time where a "new conservatism" came into effect. It wanted to put a stop to democracy and communism.
Conservative believers forced students taking mathematics to continue using slide rules, rather than using calculators that were much better. They didn't want change to happen.
Helmut Kohl is a conservative politician and statesman in Germany. Between 1982 and 1998, he was the chancellor of Germany. His 16 years as chancellor were the longest since Otto Von Bismarck.