The latter were named Dorian by the ancient Greek writers, after the Dorians, the historical population that spoke them.
The ancient Greeks believed that Troy was located near the Dardanelles and that the Trojan War was a historical event.
Classical Sparta. In the Second Messenian War, Sparta established itself as a local power in Peloponnesus and the rest of Greece.
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The Battle of Marathon took place in 490 BC, during the first Persian invasion of Greece.
In the resulting Battle of Thermopylae, the rearguard of the Greek force was annihilated, whilst in the Battle of Artemisium the Greeks had heavy losses and retreated after the loss at Thermopylae.
The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta. Historians have traditionally divided the war into three phases.
Theban-Spartan War or Boeotian War, 379-371. The Theban-Spartan War or Boeotian War (379-371 BC) was a conflict triggered by Sparta's attempts to impose her dominance over the rest of Greece, and that ended with a dramatic Spartan defeat that marked the beginning of the end for Sparta as a great power.
The Greeks treated the Macedonians as foreigners ("barbarians") whose native language was Macedonian, not Greek. Macedonia was never a region of Greece. On the contrary, ancient Greece was subjected to Macedonia. In 1913, modern Greece and her Balkan allies partitioned Macedonia.
The Battle of Chaeronea was fought in 338 BC, near the city of Chaeronea in Boeotia, between the Macedonians led by Philip II of Macedon and an alliance of some of the Greek city-states led by Athens and Thebes.
In 334 BC, he invaded the Achaemenid Empire (Persian Empire) and began a series of campaigns that lasted ten years.