Racial Segregation in Public Places


Booker T. Washington founded the National Negro Business League

March 21 1900

(NNBL) was an American organization founded in Boston in 1900 by Booker T. Washington to promote the interests of African-American businesses. The mission and main goal of the National Negro Business League was "to promote the commercial and financial development of the Negro."

James Weldon Johnson and brother J. Rosamond Johnson wrote “Lift Ev’ry Voice and Sing,” widely referred to as the Negro national anthem

June 26 1901

J. Rosamond Johnson, was an American composer and singer during the Harlem Renaissance. Born in Jacksonville, Florida, he had much of his career in New York City. Johnson is most notable as the composer of the hymn "Lift Every Voice and Sing", which has come to be known in the United States as the "Negro National Anthem".

W. E. B. Du Bois published The Souls of Black Folk

August 27 1902

The Souls of Black Folk is a classic work of American literature by W. E. B. Du Bois. It is a seminal work in the history of sociology, and a cornerstone of African-American literary history.

Plessy v. Ferguson case in which the U.S. Supreme Court, on May 18, 1896, by a seven-to-one majority (one justice did not participate),

May 18 1903

Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine. The case stemmed from an incident in which African-American train passenger Homer Plessy refused to sit in a car for blacks.

NAACP s to ensure the political, educational, social, and economic equality of rights of all persons and to eliminate race-based discrimination.


Major race riots broke out in 1906 in Brownsville, Texas, and Atlanta, Georgia, and in 1908 in Springfield, Illinois. Alarmed, black leaders gathered again and in 1909 established the NAACP to fight lynching and other racist activities.NAACP was legal action against racism, educational programs for black adults and children, and encouraging voter participation.

Growth of the Racial segregation White Only" signs began coming down.

August 27 1906

As businesses increasingly feared losing income, "White Only" signs began coming down.

With blacks' right to vote protected, the number of blacks elected as government


Despite these gains, the fight against racial prejudice and discrimination in America continued into the twenty-first century.