(NNBL) was an American organization founded in Boston in 1900 by Booker T. Washington to promote the interests of African-American businesses. The mission and main goal of the National Negro Business League was "to promote the commercial and financial development of the Negro."
J. Rosamond Johnson, was an American composer and singer during the Harlem Renaissance. Born in Jacksonville, Florida, he had much of his career in New York City. Johnson is most notable as the composer of the hymn "Lift Every Voice and Sing", which has come to be known in the United States as the "Negro National Anthem".
The Souls of Black Folk is a classic work of American literature by W. E. B. Du Bois. It is a seminal work in the history of sociology, and a cornerstone of African-American literary history.
Supreme Court decision that upheld the constitutionality of racial segregation under the “separate but equal” doctrine. The case stemmed from an incident in which African-American train passenger Homer Plessy refused to sit in a car for blacks.
Major race riots broke out in 1906 in Brownsville, Texas, and Atlanta, Georgia, and in 1908 in Springfield, Illinois. Alarmed, black leaders gathered again and in 1909 established the NAACP to fight lynching and other racist activities.NAACP was legal action against racism, educational programs for black adults and children, and encouraging voter participation.
As businesses increasingly feared losing income, "White Only" signs began coming down.