History 311

American Revolutionary War

Battle of the Plains o Abraham

Sept 13 1759 - 1760

General Wolfe vs. General Montcalm. French militia vs British Regulars. Quebec City surrendered Sept. 18. 1760 MTL captures and New France fell.

Stamp Act

March 22 1765

Tax imposed on Americans on every piece of printed paper they used. Used to raise money for defending and protecting the American frontier. Americans felt letting this tax pass would result in more troublesome taxation in future.

United States Declaration of Independence

July 1, 1776

Treaty of Paris


Formally recognized the United States of America and gave it possession of all territory west of the Mississippi River and South of the Great Lakes excluding Florida.

Corn Laws

Corn Laws

1794 - 1846

Duties on foreign grain imports
1820s - imperial grain supply emerged as imperial tarrifs decreased.
Canada Corn Act - minimal duty on Canadian grain - 1843.
Robert Peele - Free Trade supporter - repealed Corn Laws.
Canada no longer economic benefit being dependent - responsible gov't.

Imperial Grain Supply


Union of Upper and Lower Canada

1837 - February 10 1841

Lord Durham's Report of 1839 on the Rebellions of 1837 proposed a united Canada to develop a common commercial system and control of the French.

Canada Corn Act


Repeal of Corn Laws by Robert Peele


Reciprocity Agreement of 1854

1854 - 1866

Mutual reduction of duties charged on goods b/w Canada and the US. Coastal fisheries allowed for both. Trade sharply increased - Canadian railway boom, American Civil War. Became unpopular in the US and was revoked in 1866.

British North America Act of 1867

July 1 1867

Union of the colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Canada (Upper and Lower Canada became an earlier 1841 union.
John A. Macdonald, George Brown, and George-Etienne Cartier create a coalition.

War of 1812

Battle of Queenston Heights

Oct. 13, 1812

War of 1812, US invaded Canada. British victory but Sir Isaac Brock killed.

Battle of Stoney Creek

June 6 1813

Turning point in defense of Upper Canada. Victory for British, capture two American generals and dispirited the American forces.

Battle of Beaver Dams

24 June 1813

500 Americans captures when they were ambushed by First Nations and British group.
Laura Secord - Canadian heroine who walked 20 miles to warn of the impending American attack.

Battle of Thames

Oct. 5 1813

Decisive American Victory.
Tecumseh killed, First Nations coalition destroyed.

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1814

The war of 1812 was in a stalemate. This ended the war and returned all captured territories and prisoners of war. Death of Tecumseh and Sir Isaac Brock. Militia myth and rise of Canadian nationalism. First Nations are the losers.

Rush Bagot Treaty

April 17, 1817

Limited Naval Armaments of Britain and United States on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.
Richard Rush and Charles Bagot negotiated it.
Set precedent for peaceful diplomacy between Canada and United States.

World War I

The Alaskan Treaty

1897 - Oct 20 1903

Klondike Gold Rush. Boundary dispute with Canada and US. Britain sided with US in IJC. Anti-British sentiments in Canada and desire for more say internationally.

The South African War

Oct 30 1899 - 1902

Controversy for Sir Wilfred Laurier on whether to fight.
Pro British loyalists vs Against French Canadians, Labour organizations and farmer's groups


December 1912

18 tonne ship built in 1905 that would ensure Royal Navy supremacy. Naval Aid Bill passed by Robert Borden to give 35 million in assistance to British. Liberals angry saying Borden was ignoring the Naval Service Act and the Canadian navy.

War Measures Act


Denotes conferring emergency powers on the Federal cabinet and letting it govern by decree when it perceives the existence of war. Limitations of Canadians during wars - imprisonment of Germans.

Crisis of Conscription - 1917 Election

August 29, 1917

Military Service Act - forcing conscription. Unionist Borden led conservatives and some Liberals. To win the election, Borden implemented Wartime Elections Act and Military Voters Act. The conscription alienated Quebec.

Post-World War I

Locarno Treaties

Oct 5 1925 - Dec 3 1925

Negotiated Oct.5-16 in Locarno. West borders guaranteed, east up for discussion.
December 3 agreed up in London.
Collapse of imperial foreign policy, Britain did not approach Canada for consultation.

Manchurian Crisis

sept 19 1931 - 1933

Japan invades Manchuria, China.
League of Nation condemned Japan but no sanctions. Japan doesn't change anything.

Statue of Westminster

Dec 11 1931

Canadian independence.
British law giving colonies full legal freedom.

Italy Crisis

August 26, 1935 - 1936

Mussoli invades Ethiopia.
Bennett is in charge during Canadian depression. King replaces him.
Walter Redel proposes oil sanctions on Italy.
Geneva conference, condemns ital but again no sanctions.