General Wolfe vs. General Montcalm. French militia vs British Regulars. Quebec City surrendered Sept. 18. 1760 MTL captures and New France fell.
March 22 1765
Tax imposed on Americans on every piece of printed paper they used. Used to raise money for defending and protecting the American frontier. Americans felt letting this tax pass would result in more troublesome taxation in future.
United States Declaration of Independence
July 1, 1776
Treaty of Paris
Formally recognized the United States of America and gave it possession of all territory west of the Mississippi River and South of the Great Lakes excluding Florida.
1794 - 1846
Duties on foreign grain imports
1820s - imperial grain supply emerged as imperial tarrifs decreased.
Canada Corn Act - minimal duty on Canadian grain - 1843.
Robert Peele - Free Trade supporter - repealed Corn Laws.
Canada no longer economic benefit being dependent - responsible gov't.
Imperial Grain Supply
Union of Upper and Lower Canada
1837 - February 10 1841
Lord Durham's Report of 1839 on the Rebellions of 1837 proposed a united Canada to develop a common commercial system and control of the French.
Canada Corn Act
Repeal of Corn Laws by Robert Peele
Reciprocity Agreement of 1854
1854 - 1866
Mutual reduction of duties charged on goods b/w Canada and the US. Coastal fisheries allowed for both. Trade sharply increased - Canadian railway boom, American Civil War. Became unpopular in the US and was revoked in 1866.
British North America Act of 1867
July 1 1867
Union of the colonies of New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Canada (Upper and Lower Canada became an earlier 1841 union.
John A. Macdonald, George Brown, and George-Etienne Cartier create a coalition.
War of 1812
Battle of Queenston Heights
Oct. 13, 1812
War of 1812, US invaded Canada. British victory but Sir Isaac Brock killed.
Battle of Stoney Creek
June 6 1813
Turning point in defense of Upper Canada. Victory for British, capture two American generals and dispirited the American forces.
Battle of Beaver Dams
24 June 1813
500 Americans captures when they were ambushed by First Nations and British group.
Laura Secord - Canadian heroine who walked 20 miles to warn of the impending American attack.
Battle of Thames
Oct. 5 1813
Decisive American Victory.
Tecumseh killed, First Nations coalition destroyed.
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814
The war of 1812 was in a stalemate. This ended the war and returned all captured territories and prisoners of war. Death of Tecumseh and Sir Isaac Brock. Militia myth and rise of Canadian nationalism. First Nations are the losers.
Rush Bagot Treaty
April 17, 1817
Limited Naval Armaments of Britain and United States on the Great Lakes and Lake Champlain.
Richard Rush and Charles Bagot negotiated it.
Set precedent for peaceful diplomacy between Canada and United States.
World War I
The Alaskan Treaty
1897 - Oct 20 1903
Klondike Gold Rush. Boundary dispute with Canada and US. Britain sided with US in IJC. Anti-British sentiments in Canada and desire for more say internationally.
The South African War
Oct 30 1899 - 1902
Controversy for Sir Wilfred Laurier on whether to fight.
Pro British loyalists vs Against French Canadians, Labour organizations and farmer's groups
18 tonne ship built in 1905 that would ensure Royal Navy supremacy. Naval Aid Bill passed by Robert Borden to give 35 million in assistance to British. Liberals angry saying Borden was ignoring the Naval Service Act and the Canadian navy.
War Measures Act
Denotes conferring emergency powers on the Federal cabinet and letting it govern by decree when it perceives the existence of war. Limitations of Canadians during wars - imprisonment of Germans.
Crisis of Conscription - 1917 Election
August 29, 1917
Military Service Act - forcing conscription. Unionist Borden led conservatives and some Liberals. To win the election, Borden implemented Wartime Elections Act and Military Voters Act. The conscription alienated Quebec.
Post-World War I
Oct 5 1925 - Dec 3 1925
Negotiated Oct.5-16 in Locarno. West borders guaranteed, east up for discussion.
December 3 agreed up in London.
Collapse of imperial foreign policy, Britain did not approach Canada for consultation.
sept 19 1931 - 1933
Japan invades Manchuria, China.
League of Nation condemned Japan but no sanctions. Japan doesn't change anything.
Statue of Westminster
Dec 11 1931
British law giving colonies full legal freedom.
August 26, 1935 - 1936
Mussoli invades Ethiopia.
Bennett is in charge during Canadian depression. King replaces him.
Walter Redel proposes oil sanctions on Italy.
Geneva conference, condemns ital but again no sanctions.