When the war came to an end in 1945, many Americans wondered if the higher standard of living brought about by a wartime economy could be sustained in peacetime. Having experienced the Depression, they feared yet another crisis once millions of soldiers reentered the civilian workplace in an economy no longer stimulated by massive wartime production. Yet in spite of major dislocations caused by the reconversion to peacetime business and manufacturing, no new crisis occurred. Several factors cushioned the economy after the war. Demobilization occurred slowly, and military expenditures remained high. During the war Americans had saved billions of dollars, which they spent on new homes and newly available cars and appliances once the war ended. Wartime profits gave businesses money to invest in plants and equipment for civilian production. The United States was the only major industrial nation to emerge unscathed from World War II, and American loans to war-torn European nations gave these countries funds to purchase American-made goods. The Servicemen's Readjustment Act of 1944 gave veterans one year of unemployment compensation, financial assistance for job training and education, and low-interest loans to buy homes, farms, and businesses. This aid to veterans and their families, known as the GI Bill of Rights, helped nearly one-quarter of the population and further stimulated the economy.