Chapter 3 Section 1

From 2,600 B.C. to A.D. 1940


Indus Civilization, Beginning-Decline

2600 BC - 1900 bc

The Indus civilization flourished for over 700 years covering the largest area of land until the rise of Persia more than 1000 years later. Scholars do not know for sure what happened to the civilization, but they believe it wasn't through invaders, but from Mother Nature.

Aryan Civilization, Beginning

2000 bc - 1500 bc

The Aryan Civilization began when waves of nomads migrated slowly with their herds of cattle and horses from Central Asia, traveling through the mountain passes into northwestern India.

Aryan Civilization, Vedic Age

1500 bc - 500 bc

The Vedic Age was when Aryan priests memorized and recited the Vedas before they ever wrote down their sacred teachings.

Aryan Civilization, the discovery of iron

800 bc

At about this time, the Aryans learned to make tools out of iron, for example, axes and weapons.

Aryan Civilization, Sanskrit flourishes

500 bc

By this time, the written language Sanskrit, what Aryan priests used to write sacred texts with, grew in literary usage.

Mortimer Wheeler's Lifespan

1890 - 1976

Wheeler had led one of England's first university archaeology departments, run a museum, headed the first archaeological excavation to use trained volunteers rather than paid laborers, and inspired thousands of people to visit his research sites.

Indus Civilization, Discovery

1920 - 1929

Sometime in the 1920's, archaeologists unearthed bricks, small clay seals, figurines, and other artifacts dissimilar from any style ever seen before by digging in the Indus Valley of Pakistan.

Excavations of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa

1940 - 1949

Sometime in the 1940's, Mortimer Wheeler, the archaeologist, excavated the twin capitals of the Indus Civilization and realized how advanced their government was.