Invented calculus. Suggested that squaring an object's speed would reveal its capacity to do work.

First to translate Newton's works into French. She made Liebeniz's ideas about squaring an object's speed clearer by expanding upon an experiment of dropping balls into soft clay. She discovered that they had the capacity to do twice as much work if they had a squared amount of speed.

Worked with his wife to introduce and refine the idea of mass being conserved.

Worked with her husband in creating the mass part of Einstein's equation. She drew detailed drawings of laboratory apparatus and translated other scientists' works.

Believed that invisible fields of electricity and magnetism carried forces through space, and that Newton was wrong in saying that they always travelled in straight lines. He essentially introduced the idea for the modern concept of energy, which would become a basis of Einstein's research.

Worked with Michael Faraday to refine Faraday's concepts. He used his mathematical prowess to give precedence to the idea of electromagnetism. He also showed that light is naught but a wave of electric and magnetic fields.

She worked with Otto Robert Frisch to successfully prove E=mc2 when they created nuclear fission. By bombarding the nucleus of a uranium atom, they created nuclear fission. This was a huge discovery, and resulted in a Nobel Prize for Frisch. Meitner was sadly overlooked due to prejudice against women at the time, and it is still said to be the most aggregious mistake made by the Nobel Prize committee to this day.

Introduced the most fundamental ideas of physics: space, time, matter, and energy. Einstein compiled the works of all those before him into one formula- E = mc2. He proved that a small amount of mass can be equal to a huge amount of energy. Einstein never truly understood his own formula, as no one can truly fathom the incredible amount of energy packed into all the mass in our universe.

He and Otto Hahn worked with Lise Meitner until she was forced to flee Germany during WWII due to her Jewish heritage.The team worked with the nuclei of a uranium atom, bombarding the huge nucleus with extra neutrons.

Worked with Meitner, Strassman, and Hahn to create nuclear fission. Frisch took credit for the discovery, as Lise Meitner was not in the country or in any kind of position to prevent him from doing so.

Einstein and Meitner had to flee Germany, interrupting their works.

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