Chapter 23 Timeline


Andreas Versalius

1514 - 1564

Flemish physician who published the first accurate analysis of human anatomy that became the bible for 17th century medical science.

De revolutioibus orbium


Published by Nicolas Copernicus.

Johannes Kepler

1571 - 1630

First to make detailed records of planetary movements that substantiated the heliocentric theory.

Galileo Galilei

1574 - 1642

Italian contemporary of Kepler, furthered his research with extensive studies in gravity. In 1608 he improved the design of Dutch telescopes to attain three power magnification.

Renee Descartes

1596 - 1650

Regarded as the founder of modern Western philosophy, supreme rationalist, championed deductive reasoning and Cartesian dualism.

Invention of compound microscope


Invented by Hans Lippershey and Zacharias Janssen.

William Harvey


Accurately traces the circulation of the blood.

Novum Organum


Francis Bacon leading advocate for the empirical method, publishes strongest defense for the empirical method ever written.

The Laughing Cavalier


Painted by Frans Hals, example of the vogue for dutch portraiture in Northern Baroque art, reflects the self-concious materialism of a rising middle class.

Maria Van Oosterwyck

1630 - 1693

Talented Holland artist, exacted realism inspired by Jan van Eyck, painted a style known as vanitas.

Trial of Galileo


Galileo was placed under house arrest for his opposition to religious authority with his innovative science.

Isaac Newton

1642 - 1727

English Astronomer and Mathematician, synthesized 17th century physics and math, used prism to analyze light in 1666, describes gravity and movement in the universe.

Blaise Pascal


Invents a mechanical calculator capable of addition and subtraction.

Perfection of the air pump


By Otto von Guericke

Invention of mercury barometer


Invented by Blaise Pascal.

Christian Huygens


Developed the very first accurate pendulum clock.

View of Delft


Jan Vermeer and other dutch artists developed realism into naturalistic landscapes.

Discovery of microscopic protozoa


Made by Anton Van Leeuwenhoek.

Royal society of London



Invention of another calculating machine


Invented by Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, capable of multiplication and division.

Antonio Vivaldi

1678 - 1741

Leading Italian instrumental composer of the Baroque era, perfected the form known as ritornello.

Leibniz publishes first paper on differential caculus


Johann Sebastian Bach

1685 - 1750

Major German composer known for his forms of oratorio, the Mass, and the cantata, composed mostly religious pieces and over 170 organ preludes.

The art of fugue


musical composition by Bach, fugue-polyphonic composition in which a single musical theme is restated in sequential phrases.