The scientific study of anatomy gained prominence during this time, especially due to the work done by great artists, such as Leonardo Di Vinci.Collectively, these scholar and surgeons of this era provided a strong foundation for the field of modern orthopedics.Additional discoveries by Joseph Lister, Louis Pasteur, Robert Koch, and Ignaz Semmelweis relating to antisepsis appeared to revolutionize the surgical management of orthopedic injuries.After a period of rapid expansion of the field of orthopedics, and following the Renaissance, many hospitals were built focusing on the sick and disabled, which solidified orthopedics’ position as a major medical specialty. For example, in 1863, James Knight founded the Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled in New York City. Several additional orthopedic institutions were formed, including the New York Orthopedic Dispensary in 1886 and Hospital for Deformities and Joint Diseases in 1917. Orthopedic surgery residency programs also began to be developed in the late 1800s. More specifically, Virgil Gibney at Hospital for the Ruptured and Crippled began the first orthopedic training program in the United States in 1888. Young doctors in this program trained for 1 year as junior assistant, senior assistant, and house surgeon, and began to be known as resident doctors.