APUSH (Unit 4: 1800-1848)

Presidencies

Thomas Jefferson

March 4, 1801 - March 4, 1809

Won election of 1800 & 1804
Revolution of 1800.
Political fight between Jefferson and previous pres. Adams
Tie between Jefferson and Burr --> House of represesntatives had to pick president --> chose Jefferson

Election of 1800:
Democratic-Republican: Jefferson-----73 electoral votes (President)
Democratic-Republican: Burr---------73 electoral votes (VP)
Federalist: Adams-------65
Federalist: Pinckney-----64

Election of 1804:
Democratic-Republican: Jefferson-----162 electoral votes (President)
George Clinton (VP)
Federalist: Pinckney-----14 electoral votes

James Madison

March 4, 1809 - March 4, 1817

Won election of 1808 & 1812
- previous secretary of state and speaker of the house
- father of constitution and author of federalist papers
- very qualified

Election of 1808
Democratic-Republican: Madison------122 electoral votes (President)
George Clinton (VP)
Federalist: Pinckney------47 electoral votes

Election of 1812:
Democratic-Republican: Madison-------128 electoral votes (President)
Eldridge Gerry (VP)
Federalist: Clinton--------89 electoral votes

James Monroe

March 4, 1817 - March 4, 1825

Won election of 1816 & 1820
Era of Good Feelings
Monroe's view of presidency
- commander in chief
- could veto laws
- chief executive in charge of enforcing laws
- representing the US in world events as chief diplomat (negotiate treaties)
- believed pres should be involved in foreign affairs and let congress deal with domestic affairs

Election of 1816
Democratic-Republican: Monroe--------183 electoral votes (President)
Daniel D. Tompkins (VP)
Federalist: King-----------34 electoral votes

Election of 1820
Democratic-Republican: Monroe--------231 electoral votes (President)
Daniel D. Tompkins (VP)
Democratic-Republican: J. Q. Adams-----1 electoral vote

John Quincy Adams

March 4, 1825 - March 4, 1829

Won election of 1824
End of Era of Good Feelings
- Jackson had more popular and electoral votes (didn’t have a majority)
- Adams won in House of Representatives
- "corrupt bargain"
- Important that he was secretary of state because the precedent was that the previous secretary of state became president
- Jackson began to campaign for election of 1828

Election of 1824:
Democratic-Republican: J. Q. Adams------84 electoral votes (President)
John C. Calhoun (VP)
Democratic-Republican: Jackson---------99 electoral votes
Democratic-Republican: Clay------------37 electoral votes
Democratic-Republican: Crawford--------41 electoral votes

Andrew Jackson

March 4, 1829 - March 4, 1837

Won Election of 1828 & 1832
Jacksonian Democracy
Tariff of 1816 designed to manufacture a president
Creation of Whig party after 1832

Election of 1828
Democratic: Jackson--------178 electoral votes (President)
John C. Calhoun (VP)
National Republican: J. Q. Adams-----83 electoral votes

Election of 1832
Democrat: Jackson--------219 electoral votes (President)
Martin Van Buren (VP)
National Republican: Clay-----------49 electoral votes
Independent: Floyd-----------11 electoral votes
Anti-Masonic: Wirt----------7 electoral votes

Martin Van Buren

March 4, 1837 - March 4, 1841

Won election of 1836
Previous VP
not many VPs become pres
- last examples of this: Washington & Adams and Adams & Jefferson

Democrat: Van Buren---170 electoral votes (President)
Richard Mentor Johnson (VP)
Whig: Harrison-------73 electoral votes
Whig: White----------26 electoral votes
Whig: Webster--------14 electoral votes
Independent: Mangum------11 electoral votes

Politics

Revolution of 1800

1800

Election of 1800
Jefferson becomes president
peaceful transition of power from federalists to democratic republicans

foreign policy (revolution of 1800)

1800

supported the french revolution, but was adament in remaining neutral and avoiding foreign wars
persuaded Congress to pass the Embargo Act (inflicted economic hardship on American farmers and merchants)

Domestic

domestic policy (revolution of 1800)

1800

favored a strict interpretation of the constitution
was actually flexible because he used Hamilton's doctrine of implied powers to justify the louisiana purchase
believed public could govern itself
supported public education and expansion of voting rights to more white, male citizens
laid foundation for expansion suffrage during the Jackson administration

Era of Good Feelings

1816 - 1824

Monroe's presidency began with a surge of nationalism and spirit of harmony
Americans looked forward to peace and prosperity
one boston newspaper proclaimed that Monroe's election marked the beginning of an "Era of Good Feelings"

American System

1817

Henry Clay advocated for The "American System"
"Internal Improvements" referred to transportation projects
designed to promote economic growth and national unity
four components
- tariff that would protect American industries and raise revenue to fund internal improvements
- national bank that would support financial stability
- network of federally funded roads and canals
- vibrant economy with increased trade among the different regions in the nation
similar to Hamilton's economic vision
- both favored strong federal government to promote commercial and economic growth

Cultural

Economic

economic policy (revolution of 1800)

1800

Jefferson opposed creation of National Bank, but he accepted it as an essential convenience
repealed whiskey tax - pleased frontier farmers
reduced federal spending by cutting the size of the army and navy

Wars

War of 1812

1812 - 1815

What happened:
- US tried to avoid war with Britain and France by being neutral
- "War Hawks" in Congress wanted war
- June 1812, Madison asked Congress to declare war
- war was indecisive. US controlled great lakes but didn't conquer canada
- british burned down Wahington DC but majorly lost at New Orleans
- American Navy won many duels with British navy
Causes:
- British impressment of Americans
- violated American neutrality
- insulted national pride
- Henry Clay led his War Hawks to support war
- wanted to drive the British from Canada
- wanted to remove the Indian threat from the fronteir
Importance:
- Battle of New Orleans restored American pride --> Andrew Jackson = war hero
- interruption of trade increased American manufacturing
- New England merchants strongly opposed war of 1812. had the hartford convention to propose amendments to the constitution to reduce federal govt power
- intensified nationalism

Judicial

Marshall Court

1801 - 1835

Chief Justice John Marshall
judicial nationalism
rendered landmark decisions that opposed states' rights
strengthened power of federal gov't.

Marbury v. Madison

1803

John Marshall - chief justice of the supreme court
First landmark decision of the Marshall Court in 1803
On the eve of Adams leave of office, he appointed a number of justices of the peace for the District of Columbia
Madison refused to issue commissions (documents entitling them to assume their posts)
William Marbury (one of four judges) sued for their offices
Marshall's decision declared that the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional
- Marbury had a right to his comission
- Congress could not give the Supreme Court the power to issue an order granting Marbury his commission
- Exceeded power of Congress and was therefore void
The Supreme Court had assumed the right to determine whether an act of Congress violates the Constitution → judicial review
First time the courts have ruled an act of congress unconstitutional
Didn’t happen very often originally
Judicial review - power of courts to examine laws and determine if they are constitutional or not
Judiciary act of 1789 (ruled unconstitutional in Marbury v. Madison)
- Congress listed court’s powers
- One branch giving another branch powers
- Ruins checks and balances

McCulloch v. Maryland

1819
  • declared national bank constitutional
  • confirmed right of congress to utilize its implied powers
  • denied right of Maryland to tax the second bank of US
  • couldn't tax the legitimate activities of the federal government

Dartmouth College v. Woodward

1819
  • ruled that a state cannot pass laws to impair a legal private contract
  • upheld sactity of private contracts against state encroachments

Cohens v. Virginia

1821
  • affirmed right of Supreme Court to receive appeals from state courts
  • The Cohen brothers wanted to sell lottery tickets in virginia

Gibbons v Ogden

1824
  • declared that only Congress had the constitutional power to regulate interstate commerce
  • established the commerce clause as a key mechanism for expansion of federal power
  • invalidated the monopoly on ferry transportation

Worcester v. Georgia

1832
  • judicial challenge to national govt.’s removal of natives
  • Indian Removal Act

Territorial

Louisiana Purchase

April 30, 1803
  • Westerners depended on Mississippi River to ship their goods to New Orleans (reloaded onto ocean-going vessels for shipment to the East coast or foreign places)
  • Pinckney Treay gave US right of deposit of New Orleans but it was revoked in 1802
  • Spain gave Louisiana back to France
  • Haitian rebellion against France
  • Napoleon just wanted to get rid of Louisiana
  • sold to US for about $15 million
  • doubled size of US
  • Jefferson believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution
    • nowhere in Constitution did it say anything about purchase of land
    • didn't want to wait for an amendment
    • went against his beliefs
    • used a broad interpretation of presidential powers
  • sponsored Lewis and Clark expidition

Lewis and Clark Expidition

May 14, 1804 - September 23, 1806
  • Jefferson sponsored this expedition to explore the Louisiana Territory:
  • Accomplished the following goals:
    • strengthened American claims to Oregon territory
    • added knowledge about northwestern America
    • mapped and explored the Mississippi and Columbia rivers