Cold War

Events

Red Scare

1917 - 1950

The "Red Scare" was a period of extreme anti-communism in the United States. "Red" refers to the communists and their allegiance to the red Soviet flag. "Scare" refers to the fact that people were scared that communism would come to the United States.

Iron Curtain speech

March 5, 1946

The Iron Curtain Speech was a famous speech spoken by British Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill that related the separation between the U.S and the U.S.S.R by speaking these famous words,"From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent". This speech was the first words of realization to all the people of the beginning of the Cold War.

Cold War: Which groups were involved?

1947 - 1991

The groups that were involved in the Cold War included the United States and their allies (Belgium, Britain, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal) and the Soviet Union and their allies (Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the German Democratic Republic, Hungary, Poland and Romania).

Marshall Plan

April 3, 1948

The Marshall Plan was also known as the European Recovery Program, ERP. The Plan was a U.S. promoted program to restore the economies of certain European countries in order to create stable conditions in which democratic institutions could survive (Marshall Plan). Over $13 billion was given by the U.S. to Europe for economic assistance.

NATO

April 4, 1949

The NATO or the North Atlantic Treaty Organization was an alliance between Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, the United Kingdom, the United States, Greece, Turkey, West Germany and Spain. The pact was to ensure the alliance between these countries. In opposition to this pact, the Soviet Union created an alliance with Eastern European states called the Warsaw Pact.

Korean War

June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953

The Korean War began with North Korea invading South Korea. This war resulted in 2.5 million deaths. The united nations joined the side of South Korea and the People's Republic of China came to assist North Korea. Due to the war, the Korean peninsula is still divided to the present day.

Nikita Khrushchev

March 27, 1955 - October 14, 1964

Nikita Khrushchev was a leader in the Soviet Union during the height of the Cold War. He brought reform and de-Stalinizatioin. He sought to improve the lives of ordinary civilians. He was the main leader in the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Warsaw Pact

5/14/1955 - March 13, 1991

The Warsaw Pact was a pact between Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and The Soviet Union. This pact was created in opposition to the NATO. This alliance and pact lasted 36 years. It was formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation, and Mutual Assistance.

Vietnam War

November 1, 1955 - April 30, 1975

The Vietnam War was a conflict between North Vietnam and South Vietnam. It was a costly and draggingly long war. According to Ronald H. Spector, "At the heart of the conflict was the desire of North Vietnam, which had defeated the French colonial administration of Vietnam in 1954, to unify the entire country under a single communist regime modeled after those of the Soviet Union and China". The overall cost of the Vietnam War was $173 billion.

Space Race

October 4, 1957 - 1975

It was competition between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R for technological and military advantages. This competition led to the race to achieve firsts such as the first artificial satellite and human space flight. Both the U.S. and the U.S.S.R claimed victory of the Space Race.

Fidel Castro

1959 - 2008

Cuban military leader known as Fidel Castro was the first to establish a communist state after leading a military dictatorship. He ruled for around five decades. Castro’s regime was successful in reducing illiteracy, stamping out racism and improving public health care, but was widely criticized for stifling economic and political freedoms (Fidel Castro). He was a Prime minister of the Republic of Cuba as well as the president from 1976 to 2008.

John F. Kennedy

Jan 20, 1961 - Nov 22, 1963

John Fitzgerald Kennedy became the 35th president of the United States in 1961. He was appointed presidency during the hottest point in the Cold War. As president, Kennedy addressed the tensions that were due to the Cold War in places such as Cuba and Vietnam. Kennedy challenged the nation to put the first man on the moon and accomplished that challenge. He provided leadership and counsel during the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

April 17, 1961 - April 19, 1961

The Bay of Pigs Invasion took place in Bay of Pigs, Cuba in 1961. It began with the CIA's attempt to push Cuban nationalist Castro from power. Eventually, the CIA led a full-on invasion of Cuba with 1,400 Cubans who fled when Castro came to power. The invasion ended in opposition to their expectation. It ended with the surrender of the CIA who were significantly outnumbered by Castro's troops.

The Berlin Wall

August 13, 1961 - November 9, 1989

In 1961, the German Democratic Republic began construction on the “Antifascistischer Schutzwall” or “antifascist bulwark" (Berlin Wall). It was built between East and West Berlin, Germany. It was built to prevent fascists from entering East Germany. It was 87 miles long. The wall was built over the course of 5 years by the East Germans. Even though the Wall was designed to keep others out, many individuals attempted to cross the wall. Over 100 people died trying to get over the wall. Although many died, more than 5,000 individuals escaped to freedom by underground tunnels, hot air balloons, or by driving through the death strip.

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 16, 1962 - October 28, 1962

In 1962, the Cuban Missile Crisis also known as the Missile Scare, the October Crisis of 1962, and the Caribbean Crisis, grew tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. October 14 of 1962, United State's U-2 plane equipped with a camera flew over Cuba, photographing the surrounding area. After analyzing the pictures, the CIA confirmed that the photograph contained evidence that missiles were discovered in Cuba and that they matched Soviet missiles. President John F. Kennedy was later informed of this find. Shortly after, Kennedy appeared on national television announcing the force of naval quarantine in Cuba due to the presence of Soviet's missiles.

SALT I and II

1972 - 1979

A conversation between the US and the USSR to address the expensive stock hold of nuclear weapons. The intention of this agreement was to restrain the arms race. These agreements lessoned the tension of the Cold War.

Soviet Invasion of Afghanistan

December 25, 1979 - February 15, 1989

In December, Soviet troops successfully invaded Afghanistan with 300,000 troops. Later on, they were forced to withdraw their troops due to the collapse of the Soviet Union. On February 15, 1989, Afghanistan is finally free from the Soviet Unions grip.

Chernobyl Disaster

April 26, 1986

The Chernobyl disaster, or the Chernobyl accident occurred in 1986. It is now known as the most dreadful and worst calamity of nuclear power generation in all of history. This accident occurred due to a poorly designed experiment that involved removing the control rods and allowing the system to continue running at 7% power, as well as shutting down the emergency safety systems. The reaction to this experiment included several explosions that triggered a large fireball and blew off the heavy steel and concrete lid of the reactor (Chernobyl disaster). In turn, this reaction allowed substantial amounts of radioactive material to be released into the atmosphere.

Collapse of the Soviet Union

December 1991

In December of 1991, the Soviet Union collapsed into 15 separate countries. Its collapse was hailed by the west as a victory for freedom, a triumph of democracy over totalitarianism, and evidence of the superiority of capitalism over socialism( Fall of the Soviet Union). This action ended the Cold War.