HIST 1503


Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

Admiral Zheng He

1405 - 1433

7 Main Voyages

Ottoman Power

1453 - 1683

Core area c. 1300; empire at 1566

European Interlopers

1500 - 1740

British and French try to copy Dutch

Mughal Empire Expansion

1556 - 1707

Most extensive unification of the sub-continent yet

Tokugawa Shogunate

1600 - 1858

Japan Isolation

1635 - 1850

Japan remained isolated from European trade and firmly entrenched in a feudal order

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1911

Expansion 1700-1800
ruling minority faced issues with expanding population

Muhammad Ibn al-Wahhab

1703 - 1792

demanded a return to the pure Islam of Muhammad and the early caliphs; Wahhabism named after him; threatened Ottoman hold on the Arabian Peninsula; represented a pure Islamic faith that attracted clerics and ordinary people throughout the Muslim world

James Watt

1736 - 1819

1769 - invents the steam engine

Industrial Revolution

Approx. 1750 - Approx. 1850

England's Boom

Pillage as Profit

1750 - 1780

Assume role of Mughal governors
"Rape of Bengal" 1760s

Usman dan Fodio

1754 - 1817

Northern Nigeria
most powerful African reform movements
he ultimately created a vast Islamic empire; an enduring decentralized state structure which became known as the Sokoto caliphate in 1809 developed into a stable empire that helped spread Islam through the region
sought inspiration in the life of Muhammad and demanded a return to early Islamic practices; it attacked false belief and urged followers to wage holy war (jihad) against unbelievers
women were important

Battle of Plassey


East India Co, becomes effective ruler of the Mughal province of Bengal by bribing and defeating the Mughal governor's forces

Catherine the Great

1762 - 1798

Empress of Russia;
Pressing from the Black Sea towards the Mediterranean
Defeats Ottomans in battle 1792


1768 - 1813

fought for Native American unity against the Europeans like his brother Tenskwatawa

Napoleon Bonaparte

1769 - 1821

put security and order ahead of social reform
centralized government administration and established a system of rational tax collection - created a civil legal code

Company Raj

1770 - 1947

Highest level in British hands; "permanent settlement" in Bengal 1793;
Governor Cornwallis reforms
"zamindars" from Mughal tax collectors to landlords

Huge Change in 1858 - turned into more collaborative
Lord Dalhousie after being appointed in 1848 had big impact on the Company Raj

Rammohan Roy

1772 - 1833

Indian Nationalist Ideas
Value Hindu culture as one source of universal truth
Hindu civilization in need of reform from within and from certain Western ideas
Found "Brahmo Samaj" - 1828

Charles Fourier

1772 - 1837

"utopian socialism - most visionary and influential of all Restoration-era alternative movements
convinced that the division of labour and repressive moral conventions were destroying mankind's natural talents and passions
thought utopia could occur through organization not bloodshed
first formulated the idea in 1808


1775 - 1836

was turned into a prophet that promoted giving up any ties with the Europeans and turning back to Native roots and they would be rewarded

The American Revolution

1776 - 1783

Colonists objected to new measures of having to pay taxes when they lacked political representation in the British Parliament
thought people had the right to govern themselves
Treaty of Paris - 1783 - gave the United States its independence


1787 - 1828

leader of a branch of the Zulus;
created a ruthless warrior state
forced a shift from small clan communities to large, centralized monarchies throughout southern and central Africa
built an enduring Zulu community and established its traditions against encroachments by outside European forces
strong and fearless and aggressive man

Sultan Selim III

1789 - 1807

Self- Strengthening 1
Reverses attitude to Europe

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

people were going to be taxed more to account for country's debt
Bastille Day - July 14, 1789
new era of liberty, equality, and fraternity - absent of constraint rather than a special privilege
connected people more closely with a nation

The Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

successful slave revolt following French defeat in Europe
made other areas fear slave revolt

White Lotus Rebellion

1796 - 1804



Dresses as Egyptian noble to woo allies in Egypt vs the British

Napoleonic Era

1799 - 1815

went on a huge mission of expansion
defeat in Russia over a winter allowed other countries to gain an edge against him

Slave Trade Decline

1803 - 1867

Abolition and decline of Atlantic Slave Trade
People from all different parts of the world thought it was immoral
European's promoted other types of trade with Africa

Muhammed Ali

1805 - 1848

Governor of Ottoman Egypt
made reforms in education and agriculture

Janissaries Revolt


Feng Guifen

1809 - 1874

Qing official leading "Manchu restoration" 1860s

Charles Darwin

1809 - 1882

Laid out theories of natural selection; people used this to justify strong nations
set of beliefs called social Darwinism legitimated the suffering of the underclasses in industrial society - some Europeans came to believe that therefore nature itself gave them the right to rule others - not what Darwin actually believed

Spanish America Revolution

1810 - 1824

lots of different revolts in search of "freedom"
Brazil's was relatively peaceful the monarchy gave over control
Mexico's did not lead to stability
Spain's grip loosened on its colonies

Hong Xiuquan

1814 - 1864

Leader of the Taipings


1815 - 1848

the social and political ferment of the efforts to restore the old order
gave Restoration-era states and radicals many political options to choose from
"Age of Ideology"
people wanted something even bigger than the French Revolution to completely wipe out this period's political and economic order

Syed Ahmed Khan

1817 - 1898

Moslem Politics
Leads to Moslem League

Karl Marx

1818 - 1883

scientific socialism
along with Friedrich Engels thought the working class was being exploited
wanted all nations to overthrow capitalism

Herbert Spencer

1820 - 1903

"Evolution of species" applied to social evolution

Friedrich Engels

1820 - 1895

Li Hongzhang

1823 - 1901

Qing official leading "self-strengthening" industrialization 1870-1880s

Swami Dayananda Saraswati

1824 - 1883

Founds "Arya Samaj" - 1875
Hindu as India's true path

Tanzimat Reforms

1826 - 1839

Tanzimat reforms in Ottoman Empire

Edward Blyden

1832 - 1912

Race pride and "African modernity"
"Africa for the Africans" (1872);
Christianity, Islam, and the Negro Race (1887); African Life and Customs (1908)
Racial difference accepted; inferiority rejected;
Coins "the African Personality"
Africa as the "spiritual conservatory of the world"

Africanus Horton

1835 - 1883

Making Africa modern with imperial cooperation (1860s);
(Political Economy of British Western Africa (1865);West African Countries and Peoples (1868))
attacks early arguments about African racial inferiority; proposes distinct political evolution for each West African society; welcomes British support

First Opium War

1839 - 1842

Sultan Abdul Mejid I

1839 - 1861

Tansimat (reorganization) -1839
millets (community-specific laws)

Railway Boom

1840 - 1872

In Britain

Treaty of Nanjing


British acquired island of Hong Kong and the right to trade directly with the Chinese in five treaty ports and to reside there
also forced Chinese to repay the costs of war
followed Opium Wars

Caste War

1847 - 1901

went through different phases;
mostly between the Mayans and the white people in Mexico;
each side had periods of triumph
became a cursade for spiritual salvation and the complete cultural sparation of the Mayans

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1865

Taiping rebels promised to restore lost harmony

Workshop of the world



Pan Movements

Approx. 1850 - Approx. 1914

Dream was the rearrangement of borders in order to unite dispersed communities; posed threat to ruler empires/countries;
Jamal al-Din al-Afghani - 1839-1897 - spokesperson for pan-Islamism;

Crimea War

1853 - 1856

France and Britain support Sultan against Russia; demand trade access as reward;
Erosion of area

Meiji Era

1853 - 1912

Beginning - American Admiral Perry forces the issue with a gunboat in 1853 Meiji Restoration 1853-1868
Reign of Emperor Mutsuhito - helped 1868-1912;
huge economic transformation

Second Opium War

1856 - 1860

Indian Rebellion


"Sepoy (Soldier) Rebellion"/"Revolt of 1857"/"First War of Resistance"
Failure to manage the system
Lord Dalhousie's "policy of lapse" provokes princes - Rani of Jhansi
Broad change of policy

Indian Revolt

1857 - 1858

Fought against violations of treaties

Kang Youwei

1858 - 1927

Leader of "100 Days of Reform"

"Self-strengthening movement"

1860 - 1911

"Manchu Restoration" - beginning 1860-1890
Later - 1890s-1911

Mojola Agbebi

1860 - 1914

African Christianity (1880s);
Founds independence Native Baptist Church Lagos 1888

Russian Expansion

Approx. 1860 - Approx. 1870

Tsar Alexander II launched "Great Reforms" to make Russia more modern and to preserve its status as a great power

Viceroys's Council

1861 - 1909

Multiple changes to the system

American Civil War

1861 - 1865

Divided between North and South - over open to slavery or restricted to free labor
abolition of slavery; moment of thought towards voting and citizen rights to male freed slaves; then shut down by "terrorism"
established preeminence of the national government; invigorated nationalism

Leopold II

1865 - 1909

Belgian King; most determined African empire builder

Creation of Germany

1866 - 1871

Sun Yat-sen

1866 - 1925

symbolized the challenge of nation building;
His message was for Chinese - Han - nationalism

Canadian Independence


Woman's Vote

1868 - 1913

1868- local elections in Britain
Finland, Sweden, some American states - locally
1893 - national elections New Zealand
1902 - national in Australia
1906 - national in Finland
1913 - national in Norway


1868 - 1886

Diamonds (1868); Gold (1886) in South African interior

Suez Canal


Completion of the Suez Canal shortened ship travels between Europe and Asia and lowered the costs of inter-regional trade; information moved faster

Mohandas Gandhi

1869 - 1948

The Mahatma's Mission
To unite the parts against Europeans
And claim the whole

Franco Prussian War

1870 - 1871

Completed unification of Germany; destabilized France

European Expansion

Approx. 1870 - Approx. 1900

European expansion in sub-Saharan Africa

"Great Depression"

1873 - 1896

Increased Competition between industrialized European states
Fear markets & resources at at their limits

Sultan Abdul Hamid II

1876 - 1909

Supposed to be allied with Young Ottomans; turns against them

Labour Unrest

Approx. 1880 - Approx. 1920

Mostly Europe and the US

French Railway


French railway advance into Sudan

British Occupation of Egypt


Suez Canal


British seize Suez Canal for loan default

Indian National Congress founded


Jim Crows Laws

Approx. 1890 - Approx. 1900

Racial laws because slavery was banned but they still wanted to be racist

Trans-Siberian Railway

Approx. 1890 - Approx. 1900

Construction connects across all of Russia - helps for power control

Sino-Japanese War

1894 - 1895

Japan defeats China over Korea, Taiwan
Europeans demand access to specific areas in China - for their spheres of influence; USA wants to keep an open door policy

Colonial Resistance

1896 - 1912

Lots of notable moments of resistance around the entire continent of Africa

Battle of Adwa


Menelik II of Ethiopia was the only one successful in repulsing the Europeans.
Beat the Italian forces at the Battle of Adwa;
Later inspired many nationalists

Boxer Rebellion

1898 - 1901

Ending of Qing Dynasty
Against all forms of Christianity; Qing joined them against western influence declared war; foreign army came and crushed them; revealed widespread political opposition to westernization and the willingness of disaffected populations to resist western programs

"100 Days of Reform"


Ending of Qing Dynasty

Spanish-American War


Anglo-Boer War

1899 - 1902

Origins in Discovery of Gold
pitted two white communities against each other but involved 4 mil black people and 1 mil white
guerrilla warfare - concentration camp development

Theodore Roosevelt

1901 - 1909


Naval treaty with Britain


Defeats Russian Fleet

1904 - 1905

German Southwest Africa

1904 - 1906

Fighting escalated to such an extent that the German commander issued an extermination order against the Herero population (killing 90%)

Maji-Maji Revolt

1905 - 1906

Bank Panic

1907 - 1913

Panic on Wall Street; no regulations
1913- US Congress ratified the Federal Reserve Act to help

Young Turk Revolution


Seize power through Sultan Mohammed V
"Imperial Death/National Birth"

Annexes Korea


Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1920

Wanted to topple General Porfirio Diaz and his strong arm rule; creation of rural communes for Mexico's peasantry called ejidos; new national myths based on the heroism of rural peoples, Mexican nationalism, and a celebration of the Aztec past

Chinese Republican Revolution


Overthrow of the Qing Empire

Partitioning of Africa


"15 Demands" vs China


Mustafa Kemal

1922 - 1938

M.K. Attaturk "Father of the Turks"

Invades Manchuria, then China

1930 - 1940