Unit 05: A Dividing Nation Group #2 Callan

Was the Civil War inevitable?

A Dividing Nation

Slavery ban North of the Ohio river

1787

Northwest Ordinance bans slavery north of Ohio River and east of the Mississippi.

Ratification of the Constitution

1788

Constitution is ratified with the 3/5th Compromise.

Slave states and Free states become divided in the nation

1800 - 1810

Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana enter Union as free states.

Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama enter Union as slave states.

Free states vs. slave states

1819

Number of free states = 11; Number of slave states = 11
Missouri applies for statehood as a slave state.

Beginning of abolitionist newspaper

1821

William Lloyd Garrison begins to publish abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator.

Missouri Compromise is passed

1821

Missouri enters as a slave state; Maine enters as a free state. The law draws a line at latitude 36 30: North of that line slavery was banned.

Fredrick Douglass publishes his book

1845

Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass

US gains land from Mexico; treaty signed

1848

US signs treaty with Mexico: acquires Mexican cession territory.

Harriet Tubman escapes and California applies for statehood

1849

Harriet Tubman escapes on the Underground Railroad.

California applies for statehood as a free state.

Compromise of 1850

1850

Henry Clay proposes the Compromise of 1850.
California enters as a free state.
Two new territories, New Mexico and Utah, are open to slavery.
The slave trade in D.C. is ended.
A new Fugitive Slave law is passed.

Uncle Tom's Cabin is Published

1852

Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

Kansas Nebraska Act

1854

Congress passes the Kansas Nebraska Act; the issue of slavery in both states will be decided based on popular sovereignty.
The Republican Party is established to oppose the Kansas Nebraska Act and the Fugitive Slave Law.

Violence breaks out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces

1856

“Bloody Kansas”: violence breaks out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas.

John Brown massacres 5 proslavery men in Pottawatomie, Kansas.

Senator Charles Sumner is caned in the Senate.

Dred Scott

1857

The Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision: African-Americans are not citizens; Missouri Compromise line is unconstitutional.

John Brown's Raid

1859

John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Brown is captured and hung

Abraham Lincoln won presidency

1860

In November, Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, wins the election of 1860 with less than 40% of the vote.
In December, South Carolina secedes from the Union.

Confederacy is formed. Civil War begins

1861

The Confederate States of America is formed; Jefferson Davis is elected president.
In March, President Lincoln is inaugurated.
On April 12, 1861, Southern forces fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, beginning the Civil War.

American Presidents

George Washington

1789 - 1797

John Adams

1797 - 1801

Thomas Jefferson

1801 - 1809

James Madison

1809 - 1817

James Monroe

1817 - 1825

J. Quincy Adams

1825 - 1829

Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

M. Van Buren

1837 - 1841

William Harrison

1841

John Tyler

April, 1841 - 1845

James Polk

1845 - 1849

Zachary Taylor

1849 - July, 1850

Millard Fillmore

1850 - 1853

Franklin Pierce

1853 - 1857

James Buchanan

1857 - 1861

Abraham Lincoln

1861 - 1865

Events