Northwest Ordinance bans slavery north of Ohio River and east of the Mississippi.
Ratification of the Constitution
Constitution is ratified with the 3/5th Compromise.
Slave states and Free states become divided in the nation
1800 - 1810
Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana enter Union as free states.
Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama enter Union as slave states.
Free states vs. slave states
Number of free states = 11; Number of slave states = 11
Missouri applies for statehood as a slave state.
Missouri Compromise is passed
Missouri enters as a slave state; Maine enters as a free state. The law draws a line at latitude 36 30: North of that line slavery was banned.
Beginning of abolitionist newspaper
William Lloyd Garrison begins to publish abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator.
Fredrick Douglass publishes his book
Narrative of the Life of Fredrick Douglass
US gains land from Mexico; treaty signed
US signs treaty with Mexico: acquires Mexican cession territory.
Harriet Tubman escapes and California applies for statehood
Harriet Tubman escapes on the Underground Railroad.
California applies for statehood as a free state.
Compromise of 1850
Henry Clay proposes the Compromise of 1850.
California enters as a free state.
Two new territories, New Mexico and Utah, are open to slavery.
The slave trade in D.C. is ended.
A new Fugitive Slave law is passed.
Congress passes the Kansas Nebraska Act; the issue of slavery in both states will be decided based on popular sovereignty.
The Republican Party is established to oppose the Kansas Nebraska Act and the Fugitive Slave Law.
Violence breaks out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces
“Bloody Kansas”: violence breaks out between pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces in Kansas.
John Brown massacres 5 proslavery men in Pottawatomie, Kansas.
Senator Charles Sumner is caned in the Senate.
The Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision: African-Americans are not citizens; Missouri Compromise line is unconstitutional.
John Brown's Raid
John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Brown is captured and hung
Abraham Lincoln won presidency
In November, Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, wins the election of 1860 with less than 40% of the vote.
In December, South Carolina secedes from the Union.
Confederacy is formed. Civil War begins
The Confederate States of America is formed; Jefferson Davis is elected president.
In March, President Lincoln is inaugurated.
On April 12, 1861, Southern forces fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, beginning the Civil War.