Unit 05: A Dividing Nation Group #4

Was the Civil War inevitable?

A Dividing Nation

3/5 Compromise

1788

ratification of the constitution which included that all slaves were counted as 3/5 of a person because the south wanted more representatives in the House of Representatives.

Free States

1800 - 1810

Ohio, Illinois, and Indiana enter Union as free states.

Slave States

1800 - 1810

Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama enter Union as slave states.

Missouri is a State

1819

Missouri applies for statehood as a slave state.

Seprate But Equal

1819

Number of free states = 11; Number of slave states = 11

Missouri Compromise

1821

Missouri Compromise is passed: Missouri enters as a slave state; Maine enters as a free state. The law draws a line at latitude 36 30: North of that line slavery was banned.

Liberator

1821

William Lloyd Garrison begins to publish abolitionist newspaper, The Liberator.

Frederick Douglass

1845

Frederick Douglass publishes his Narrative.

Treaty of Mexico

1848

US signs treaty with Mexico: acquires Mexican cession territory.

California applies for statehood as a free state

1849

California became the 31st state on September 9, 1850.

Harriet Tubman escapes on the Underground Railroad

1849

Harriet Tubman returned to slave-holding states many times to help other slaves escape. She led them safely to the northern free states and to Canada.

Henry Clay proposes the Compromise of 1850

1850

California enters as a free state.
Two new territories, New Mexico and Utah, are open to slavery.
The slave trade in D.C. is ended.
A new Fugitive Slave law is passed.

Harriet Beecher Stowe publishes Uncle Tom’s Cabin.

1852

This book describes the cruelties of slavery through a slave named Uncle Tom. It tells of his life through three slave holders. The first two treat him nicely, while the third abuses hum many times. Southerners saw this as an insult to their way of life. Harriet thought this book bring an end to slavery.

The Republican Party

1854

The Republican Party is established to oppose the Kansas Nebraska Act and the Fugitive Slave Law.

Congress passes the Kansas Nebraska Act

May 30, 1854

The issue of slavery in both states will be decided based on popular sovereignty. It allowed people in the territories of Kansas and Nebraska to decide for themselves whether or not to allow slavery within their borders. The Act served to repeal the Missouri Compromise of 1820 which prohibited slavery north of latitude 36°30´.

John Brown

1856

massacres 5 proslavery men in Pottawatomie, Kansas.

“Bloody Kansas”

May 21, 1856

Pro-slavery forces raided the Free-Soil town of Lawrence, Kansas. They burned buildings, looted stores, and destroyed two printing presses. Northerners called this "Sack of Lawrence".

Senator Charles Sumner is caned in the Senate.

May 22, 1856

The Supreme Court

1857

The Supreme Court hands down the Dred Scott decision: African-Americans are not citizens; Missouri Compromise line is unconstitutional.

John Brown’s raid

1859

John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia; Brown is captured and hung.

Abraham Lincoln wins the election of 1860

1860

In November, Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, wins the election of 1860 with less than 40% of the vote.

South Carolina secedes from the Union

December 1860

Confederate States of America is formed

1861

The Confederate States of America is formed; Jefferson Davis is elected president.

President Lincoln is inaugurated

March 1861

Southern forces fire

April 12, 1861

Southern forces fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, beginning the Civil War.

American Presidents

George Washington

1789 - 1797

John Adams

1797 - 1801

Thomas Jefferson

1801 - 1809

James Madison

1809 - 1817

James Monroe

1817 - 1825

J. Quincy Adams

1825 - 1829

Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

M. Van Buren

1837 - 1841

William Harrison

1841

John Tyler

April, 1841 - 1845

James Polk

1845 - 1849

Zachary Taylor

1849 - July, 1850

Millard Fillmore

1850 - 1853

Franklin Pierce

1853 - 1857

James Buchanan

1857 - 1861

Abraham Lincoln

1861 - 1865

Events