Term 1



980 - 1015

rules Kievan State

Vladimir converts to Christianity



1016 - 1054

unifies Kievan law

Mongol invasions of Russia

1200 - 1300

aided development of absolutism

Babylonian Captivity

1305 - 1377

Phillip Iv of Fr and Clement V- pope
pope lives in Avignon

John Wyclif

1328 - 1384


Ivan I

1328 - 1341

Metropolitan moves to Moscow

Hundred Year's War

1337 - 1453

b/t france and england- fr. won
turned into civil war for fr.


1350 - 1550

John Hus

1374 - 1415

executed as heretic

Great Schism

1378 - 1417

2 men claiming to be pope splits Europe

Council of Constance


both "popes" step down
Martin V become pope- begins healing process

Charles VII

1422 - 1461

ruler in france- royal army (permanent standing), high taxes on imported goods

Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges

1438 - 1439

church weakened. Fr king can appt. bishops and affirmed authority of church council over pope

Wars of the Roses

1450 - 1485

yorks vs. lancaster

Age of Exploration

1450 - 1650

started by Portugal


1452 - 1598

friar who gained control from Medici in Florence, but was executed for drastic beliefs

fall of const.


fell to Otto. Turks

Peace of Lodi

1454 - 1455

b/t Venice and Milan- both gained land and stopped fighting

Louis XI

1461 - 1483

encouraged commerce and industry

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

friar who begins Lutheranism

Ulrich Zwingli

1484 - 1531

religious reformer
influences calvin

Diaz rounded Cape of Good Hope


expulsion of jews

1492 - 1493

from Spain

reconquista ends


Moores out of Spain

Columbus in New World


Columbus returns from New World


brings new things and opens curiosity

Treaty of Tordesillas


Pope Alexander VI divides world b/t Spain and Portugal

De Gama- India



1500 - 1600

Henry VIII

1509 - 1547

founded church of England due to personal not spiritual beliefs

John Calvin

1509 - 1563

begins calvinism TULIP

Lateran Council

1512 - 1517

Julius II calls
fails due to lack of foreign bishops

Francis I

1515 - 1547

Concordat of Bologna

1516 - 1517

b/t Fr I and Leo X- reaffirmed Prag. but pope can collect 1st yrs tax on bishops and affirmed power of papacy

95 Thesis

October 31, 1517


Leipzig Debate


Johann Eck v. Luther

Twelve Articles


list of grievances by peasants. think Luther will support, but doesn't- leads to massive kills of peasants

Diet of Worms


called by Charles V

In Defense of the Seven Sacraments


Henry writes after hearing of Martin Luther
becomes "defender of the faith" by Leo X

Luther excommunicated


by Loe X

Sack of Rome


Charles V mad at Clement for shifting to support French in Haps-Val wars

Diet of Speyer


prot and cath meet to discuss differences.

Marbourg Colloquy


religious diet
prot attend and agree on 13 pts

Confession of Augsburg


Melanchton (Luther followers) helps write official teachings

Act in Restraint of Appeals


passed by Par.
forbid appeal of any court case going to Rome

Ivan IV, the Terrible

1533 - 1584

strengthens absolutism
expansion- siberia

Act of the Submission of Clergy


clergy had to submit to king

Act of Supremacy


king/monarch is head of church of england

Dissolution of monasteries

1535 - 1539

gains land for king and can sell for profit
uses money for army

Pilgrimage of Grace


largest political/ religious uprising in Eng.

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

Charles V
reaffirms Cath. doctrine, tridentine doctrine,

Edward VI

1547 - 1553

allowed lutheran teachings to spread

Henry II and Catherine Medici

1547 - 1560

French rulers

Mary I

1553 - 1558

restores catholicism- kills prot.
marries Phillip of Spain

Peace of Augsburg


stops fighting b/t imperial army and schmalkaldic league
recognizes lutheranism
give right for princes to choose religion over land

Charles V divides empire


b/t Ferdinand (HRE) and Philip II (Spain)

Elizabeth I

1558 - 1603

Elizabethan Settlement- outward allegiance to church of england, anything in private
39 Articles

Francis II

1559 - 1560

son of Hen and Cath
ruled during rise of calvinism

Charles IX

1560 - 1574

ruled during rise of calvinism in france

Revolt in Nether.


Prot Neth revolts against Cath Sp.

Battle of Lepanto


b/t ottos and Euro fleat (holy league- Haps(sp), Venice, and pope)
HL victory
otto threat gone in West Med

St. Bartholomew's Massacre

August 24, 1572

wedding of Hen Nav and Marg.
Massacre of Huguenots

Henry III

1574 - 1589

war of the 3 henrys

Union of Aras


(Roman Catholic) Spanish Netherlands

Union of Utrecht


(Calvinist) United Provinces of the Netherlands est.

Spanish Armada


stop support of Dutch

Was of Religion end in France


Henry IV

1589 - 1610

Absolutism and Constitutionalism

1589 - 1725

Edict of Nantes


rel tolerance for Huguenots in some cities
implies Cath official rel

Time of Troubles

1598 - 1613

civil wars after the Terrible's death

Cardinal Mazarin

1602 - 1661

aids Louis XIV

Louis XIII

1610 - 1643

Michael Romanov

1613 - 1645

chosen among Boyars after civil wars

Thirty Years War

1618 - 1648

wars fought in HRE b/t port and cath

Bohemian Phase

1618 - 1625

Ferdinand II- victory for Catholics

Danish Phase

1625 - 1629

Christian VI (Prot) v. Albert of Wallenstine (Cath- imperial army)
Catholic victory

Edict of Restitution


all lands lost by Cath to Prot given back

Peace of Alais


Huguenots could not live behind walls, but not outlawed

Swedish Phase

1630 - 1635

Aldolphus(prot)- lead many Prot victories
ends in Catholic victory



battle- p victory, Ald. killed



C- victory

French Phase

1635 - 1648

(International Phase)
French on P side

Louis XIV

1643 - 1715

Peace/ Treaty of Westphalia


ends 30 years war

The Fronde

1648 - 1653

series of revolts by nobles

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

westernized Russia- technology from Europe for expansion and army

Battle of Vienna


as far as Ottos will go.
lose battle and begin getting pushed back

Edict of Fontainebleau


stops religious freedom for huguenots

Great Northern War

1700 - 1721

Russia v. Sweden
peter v. Charles XII

War of the Spanish Succession

1701 - 1713

Charles II left Philip of Anjou(Hapsburg) as heir to Spain, but Great Alliance (England, Holland, Austria and Prussia) didn't want that

Battle of Poltava


turning point for Russia

Peace of Utretch


Phil becomes king of Spain
Austria gains Sp. Neth
Eng gains N Am lands

Treaty of Nystad


Russia gains Baltic states and sea port