APWH Period 3 Timeline


Byzantine Empire

476 CE - 1453 CE

Also called the Eastern Roman Empire, which continued on after the western half fell in 473 CE. Inherited Christianity and after the Great Schism, separated completely from the pope and created a new Christian denomination now called Eastern Orthodoxy. Only empire west of China to last from the post-classical period to modern times. Government followed Caesaropapism and had the Theme system. The people mostly spoke Greek and followed Greek tradtions. Finally fell to Ottoman Turks in 1453.

Tang Dynasty

618 CE - 907 CE

Came after the Sui Dynasty in China. Known for its Golden Age of arts in China and many new technologies such as gunpowder and printing. Wu Zetian was the only female empress in China history to rule alone. Liberal attitude towards region. One of the largest expansion of China in its history but governmental neglects and rebellion led to decline.

Rightly Guided Caliphs

632 CE - 661 CE

After Muhammad died, he was followed by four of his close friendswho became the next caliphs. They were Abu Bakr al-Siddiq , Umar ibn al-Khattab , Uthman ibn Affan , and Ali ibn Abi Talib . Guided by Muhammad's practices. A civil war between Muslims caused the Sunni-Shi'a split. They conquered most of the Arabian Peninsula

Umayyad Dynasty

661 CE - 750 CE

First major Islamic dynasty that was ruled by Sunni Muslims. Capital was modern day Damascus, Syria. Had the greatest territorial expansion of the Muslim world. Emphasized Muslim Arabs and brought stability to the Islamic community after "The Four Rightly Guided Caliphs". Destroyed by Abbasid Empire

Ghana Empire

Approx. 700 CE - 1076 CE

Empire grew rich from tax and trade networks in the Sahara Desert. 2 biggest commodities were gold and salt. Had theocratic government with powerful rulers. Many elites and merchants converted to Islam and learned Arabic. Overrun by outside invaders called Almoravids.

Abbasid Dynasty

750 CE - 1258 CE

Destroyed Umayyad Dynasty. Shi'a supporters first then later on Sunni supporters. Baghdad was capital and center of dynasty. Seized control of Persia and Mesopotamia and had religious classes with the Christendom. Destroyed by Mongol invaders from Asia.

Song Dynasty

960 CE - 1279 CE

Succeeded the Tang Dynasty and led to the creation of an urban, merchant, middle class. Invention of magnetic compass makes China a great sea power. Emphasis on administration, industry, education, and the arts; military not emphasized. Fell to Mongols who established the Yuan Dynasty.

Mongol Empire

1206 CE - 1368 CE

Founded by Genghis Khan and his Mongolian tribe. United nomadic tribes of the dry steppes lands of Asia and built a loyal and fierce army. Built largest empire in the known world at the time. Led to revival and safe passage of the silk road. Had religious tolerance and spared cities that surrendered. After Kublai's death, the empire splits into four khanates and slowly loses influences over its conquered region. The overthrow of the Yuan Dynasty in China signaled the end.

Mali Empire

1235 C.E - Approx. 1450 C.E

Empire that grew rich from taxes and trade networks in northwest Africa. Gold was biggest commodity. Mansa Musa- most famous ruler. Converted to Islam and expanded empire through strong military. Established major trading city: Timbuktu known as a trade center of the trans-Saharan trade networks and educational center for Islam. Musa's death lead to collapse of empire.

Yuan Dynasty

1279 CE - 1368 CE

Mongol-led Dynasty of China that overthrew the Southern Song Dynasty. Tolerated Chinese culture but dismissed Confucian scholars. Women had expanded freedom under Mongols. Had economic revival and helped spread Bubonic Plague to Europe. Collapsed with rest of the Mongol empire and paved the way for the Ming Dynasty.