The Rocky Road of Canadian Immigration

Events

Immigration Act of 1869

1869

Focused on ensuring safety of immigrants on their way to Canada and protecting them from exploitation upon their arrival
Hoped and open immigration policy would encourage settlement of the west however large immigration failed to happen as the rate of emigration remained well above the rate of immigration in the nineteenth century
Limited the number of passengers aboard each vessel to one person for every 2 tons of the ship's weight.
https://www.pier21.ca/research/immigration-history/immigration-act-1869

Royal Commision of Chinese immigration

1885

Appointed to prove the necessity of regulating chinese immigration to Canada
Large numbers of chinese workers came to Canada in the 1880’s to work on the CPR
Many people in British Columbia said the chinese people coming to Canada were full of illnesses and disease
Recommended paying a $10 fine to enter Canada for each person
Chinese immigration act raised to $50 per person when entering Canada, this only temporarily reduced the number of immigrants coming to Canada
1900 the fine raised to $100, then in 1903 to $500 for every person

Immigration Act of 1906 and 1910

1906 - 1910

More restrictive immigration policy
Expanded the categories of prohibited immigrants, formalized a deportation process and assigned the government enhanced powers to make arbitrary judgments on admission
The government could prohibit any class of immigrants when it was considered necessary.
In 1908 canadian minister of labour negotiated an agreement with japanese foreign minister to restrict japanese immigration to canada, the japanese immigrant number was volunteered to 400
The Immigration Act of 1910 expanded the list of prohibited immigrants and gave the government greater discretionary authority concerning the admissibility and deportation of immigrants.

Naturalization act 1914, and empire Settlement act 1919

1914 - 1919

To be approved for a certificate of naturalization, immigrants were required to live in Canada for five years, possess adequate knowledge of French or English and exhibit good moral character.
The government amended the Immigration Act in 1919 with more restrictive regulations in response to the postwar economic downturn, labour unrest and growing anti-foreign sentiment. Immigrants from enemy alien countries were denied entry and the restricted categories of political dissidents were expanded.
The Empire Settlement Act of 1922 was an agreement between the British government and several commonwealth countries designed to facilitate the resettlement of agriculturalists, farm labourers, domestics and juvenile immigrants throughout the Empire.
Around 165,000 British immigrants arrived in Canada as participants

Komagata Maru

1914

A chartered ship used to exclude Indian immigrants to Canada
Began on the eve of the first world war, it was not a good experience for the passengers
550 steerage and 16 cabin passengers
All were male passengers except 2 wives and 4 children
These passengers arrived in Canadian waters on 21 May 1914 and anchored in Vancouver’s harbor on 23 May.
Denied entry when they got to Canada
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/komagata-maru/

Railway Agreement 1925

1925

In 1925, the Canadian government formalized an agreement with the Canadian Pacific Railway and the Canadian National Railway allowing the companies to control the recruitment and settlement of European agriculturalists in an effort to fulfill Canada’s growing labour needs.
The agreement was cancelled in 1930
With the passage of order-in-council PC 695 on 21 March 1931, the government implemented the tightest immigration admissions policy in Canadian history.
Admissible immigrants were limited to American and British subjects with enough capital to maintain themselves, agriculturalists with sufficient means to farm in Canada and the wives and minor children of Canadian residents.

Hungarian Refugees

1956

between 1956 and 1957 about 37 000 Hungarian refugees came to Canada after the collapse of the 1956 uprising against Soviet authority. Since then several hundred Hungarians have immigrated to Canada annually.
Established themselves in town and cities, congregated in their own residential groups
Residential groups of hungarians have disappeared
Most worked as miners of loggers
During the great depression most of them lost their jobs, farms, and businesses
Most of them are roman catholic, some others are jewish or eastern rite
catholics
http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/hungarians/

White Paper on Immigrations

1966

The White Paper on Immigration was a policy document commissioned by the government to review immigration legislation and make recommendations on its restructuring
The report suggested that Canada should focus on recruiting qualified immigrants and tighten the controls on sponsored immigration to avoid an influx of unskilled labourers.
Immigration Regulations in 1967 established new standards for possible immigrants
immigrants were assessed points in specific categories relating to their education, occupational skills, employment prospects, age, proficiency in English and French and personal character.
You had to have 50 out of 100 points to be allowed in no matter what your race or ethnicity was
Multiculturalism was intended to preserve the cultural freedom of individuals and provide recognition of the cultural contributions of diverse ethnic groups to Canadian society. The government committed to support multiculturalism by assisting cultural groups in their development, assisting individuals in overcoming discriminatory barriers, encouraging intercultural exchange and assisting immigrants in learning French or English.

Immigration Act 1976

1976

Represented a significant shift in Canadian immigrant legislation
It was the first immigration act to clearly outline the objectives of Canadian immigration policy, define refugees as a distinct class of immigrants and mandate the federal government to consult with other levels of government in immigration planning and management.
the Canadian Multiculturalism Act of 1988 provided a legislative framework to the existing policy of multiculturalism and expanded its focus.
Revisions to the policy were necessary to reflect Canada’s increasingly diverse, racial and ethnic
The act was to protect all cultural heritages of canadians, lessen discrimination, and encourage the implementation of multicultural programs with institutions and organizations

Kosovar Refugees

1992

Canada’s government announced an emergency airlift that brought over 5,000 Kosovars to military bases in Canada under Operation Parasol, and automatically granted refugee status to these individuals, allowing them to later seek permanent residency in Canada. So they could leave Kosava where the war was.
They were brought here by Canadian planes
2,200 joined their family members that already lived in Canada under the family reunification program which made application faster for families with members already living here
Start up costs and living allowances were paid by the federal government during the first year of arrival
https://www.opencanada.org/features/when-the-refugees-came-snapshots-from-five-compassionate-moments-in-canadas-history/