The Neolithic revolution was the first agricultural revolution. It was a gradual change from nomadic hunting and gathering communities and bands to agriculture and settlement.
Hinduism has neither a specific moment of origin nor a specific founder. However, Hinduism is a major world religion originating in the Indian subcontinent and comprising several and varied systems of philosophy, belief and ritual. Some say the Indus valley civilization was the earliest souce of these traditions, if true, Hinduism is the oldest living religion on Earth. Its many sacred texts in Sanskrit and vernacular languages served as a vehicle for spreading the religion to other parts of the world, though ritual and the visual and performing arts also played a significant role in its transmission.
Buddhism was founded in the late 6th century BCE by Siddhartha Guatama (the "Buddha"). According to legend, Siddhartha was provided with many luxuries and pleasures by his father. But, as a young man, he once went on a series of four chariots rides where he saw the more severe forms of human suffering: old age, illness, and death. The contrast between his life and this human suffering made him realize that all the pleasures on earth, could only mask human suffering. The Buddha began to teach others these truths out of compassion for their suffering. The most important doctrines included The Four Noble Truths and the Eight-Fold Path. After Buddha's death, his wandering followers gradually settled down into monasteries, and engaged in practices as visiting the Buddha, and worshipping the tree under he became enlightened.
The founder of Confucianism, Confucius, was born in China on 551 BCE. Overtime, Confucius saw many people suffering from hunger, displacement, and death because of fighting. Confucius sought to bring peace and order to society. He strived to teach others the way to live in harmony with those around you as well as principles of good governance. His teachings eventually permeated society and he became one of China's greatest social philosophers and teachers. Confucius’ teachings focused on the mortal world of rulers and the ruled rather than life after death.
After the Qin Dynasty came to an end, the Han Dynasty was established by Emperor Gaozu, who later reinforced and renovated the Great Wall. This dynasty was an era of peace ,prosperity, invention, science. One of the most important inventions was paper. paper allowed the government to easily keep records and pass on instructions throughout the empire.
Founded in 618 and ending in 907, the state, became the most powerful and prosperous country in the world. Particularly, the economy, politics, culture and military strength reached an unparalleled advanced level.
The Song Dynasty was a period of technological advances and prosperity. Some of the most significant inventions in this era was Movable Type Printing and Gunpowder. The innovation of movable type printing became a fast and economical method for printing. It also advanced the literacy and culture's development. During the Song Dynasty, the religions of Daoism and Buddhism became less popular. Neo-Confucian thought became their dominant philosophy of life. Also during this dynasty, the cruel custom of foot-binding for women became popular. The Song Dynasty also proved to be the most difficult for the Mongols to defeat.
Genghis Khan was a 13th-century warrior in central Asia who founded the Mongol Empire, one of the largest empires in history. Once established, the Mongol Empire became a peaceful political environment that allowed increased communication and trade between the West, Middle East, and Asia. This openness meant that these previously separate worlds could begin to trade with each other. By the time Genghis Khan died, the empire controlled a vast amount of territory in China and Central Asia, and its armies had ventured as far west as Kiev in modern-day Ukraine.
The Yuan Dynasty was China's first foreign-led dynasty, in between the Chinese Song and Ming Dynasties. It was established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongol Empire, and fell into internal rebellion after it lost touch with its Mongol roots. One big change during Kublai's reign was that foreigners became the rulers and administrators. Since they didn't trust the local people, they moved in a large number of Muslims and other people to help them rule the empire. The Mongols had their own religious belief called Shamanism. However, this religion did not spread. Instead, both the Mongols and some indigenous people started accepting Islam. The famous Italian traveler, Marco Polo visited China during the Yuan and introduced China to Europeans. Also, Kublai's empire was the first to use paper money as the main currency.
In 1403, the new emperor, Zhu Di, ordered the construction of the Treasure Fleet- a fleet of trading ships, warships and support vessels that would travel across the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean. Zheng, He took seven voyages as commander of the Treasure Fleet. The First Voyage set sail for Calicut to purchase spices such aas cardamom, cinnamon, ginger, and pepper. The Second Voyage traveled again to Calicut. The Third Voyage, sailed from China towards the Hormuz on the Persian Gulf, passing Champa and Sumatra. In Champa, they traded with the native populations for ebony, lakawood, and aloewood in exchange for Chinese Silk and porcelain. The Fourth Voyage ordered the largest Treasure Fleet expedition yet assembled. The fleet traveled to Hormuz, where they obtained sapphires, rubies, coral beads, amber and beautiful carpets. On the Fifth Voyage, the emperor ordered Zheng he to return the envoys back to their home countries. The Sixth Voyage was Zheng He's shortest voyage. Finally the Seventh Voyage was Zheng He's last mission, which was to explore the distant lands beyond the seas and beyond the realm of the emperor.