World History Timeline

WHAP Period 6

Zimmermann Telegram

1917

Britain intercepted German telegram encouraging Mexico to attack the US. Caused the US to enter the war.

Amritsar Massacre

1919

British troops killed 400 nonviolent Indian protesters. Increased support for Gandhi's cause and led to the Non-Cooperation Movement.

Treaty of Versailles

1919

Britain and France forced war blame and debt on Germany. Stripped Germany of its colonial possessions. Caused resentment that led to WWII.

Joseph Stalin rule

1929 - 1953

Stalin outmaneuvered Trotsky and Bukharin, taking complete control of the Soviet Union. Forced collectivization of farms, causing massive manmade famine.

Great Depression

1929 - 1939

Consumer debt and overspending caused stock marked bubbles that popped. This plummeted the world into a massive economic downturn, paving the way for the rise of fascism.

Japan bombs Pearl Harbor

1941

Surprise attack against the US in response to the Atlantic Charter against Japan. Brought the US into WWII.

The Iron Curtain

1945 - 1991

Symbolic division between Eastern totalitarian communism and Western democratic capitalism in Europe. Ended with the tearing down of the Berlin Wall.

Indian Independence Act

1947

India granted independence from British rule. Mohammad Ali Jinnah, fearing the Hindu majority in India, got Pakistan partitioned off as a Muslim state.

Marshal Plan

1947

US offers Western Europe financial aid to develop after WWII. Stalin declines the offer because it comes with Capitalist conditions.

China falls to communism

1949

Mao leads communist revolution to collapse China's nationalist government. Allies with Stalin, causing the West to fear the communists were "setting up dominoes."

Korean War

1950 - 1953

US backed South Korea to protect it from Soviet-backed North Korea. First military conflict of the Cold War.

Vietnam War

1959 - 1975

US backed the unpopular Ngo Diem, preventing elections to unify Vietnam. LBJ claimed Gulf of Tonkin incident to justify American military action. War became unpopular and US pulled out, leaving Vietnam in communist control.

Bay of Pigs Invasion

1961

CIA planned Operation Mongoose to support Cuban exiles in overthrowing Castro. Castro found out about the invasion and thwarted it, leading to the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Cuban Missile Crisis

1962

Khrushchev placed nuclear missiles in Cuba to deter future attacks. Kennedy responded with a blockade, and closed-door diplomacy resolved the issue.

Gulf of Tonkin

1964

LBJ claimed North Vietnamese attack on 2 US battleships justified military action in Vietnam. Pentagon Papers were later leaked, revealing Johnson exaggerated about the scope and circumstances of the attack.

Six-Day War

1967

Egyptian President Nasser attempted to wipe out Israel but was soundly defeated, losing the Gaza Strip. Egyptians lost faith in Nasser and replaced him with Anwar Sadat

Prague Spring

1968

Alexander Dubcek responded to his citizens demands and pulled out of the Warsaw Pact. Brezhnev responded with force, crushing the rebellion and est. the Brezhnev Doctrine.

Camp David Accords

1978

President Anwar Sadat of Egypt met with Jimmy Carter and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin to discuss peace in the Middle East. Egypt promised not to invade Israel if Israel returned the land it took during the Yom Kippur War.

Iranian Revolution

1979

West-aligned Mohammad Reza Pahlavi was unpopular due to his use of secret police and secularization of the government. He was overthrown by Ayatollah Khomeini, a Shiite cleric who made Iran a theocracy.

Nelson Mandela Freed

1991

F. W. de Klerk freed Mandela from prison in response to international pressure. Mandela was then elected president of South Africa and led a Rainbow Coalition to end Apartheid.

WHAP Period 5

Enclosure Movement

1750 - 1850

British movement ended open-field system as landowners sought to maximize profit by instituting three-field and four-field crop rotations. Squatters were kicked off land and moved to cities. This urbanization created a workforce for the Industrial Revolution.

Laissez-Faire Capitalism

1776

Adam Smith published "The Wealth of Nations" calling for laissez-faire capitalism. Called for limited government intervention with the market guided by the invisible hand of supply and demand.

Urbanization

1800 - 1850

The enclosure movement caused mass migration from farms to cities. The population of London more than doubled. This created an ample workforce for factories.

Corn Laws

1815 - 1846

Laws restricting the importation of food and grain into England. Designed to protect domestic producers. An example of mercantile policies.

Comparative Advantage Theory

1817

David Ricardo, a principal of Adam Smith, developed the comparative advantage theory arguing for lowered tariffs and free trade. He believed that each country would specialize in what they are best at, and the world would reach economic equilibrium.

Opium Wars

1839 - 1842

Britain exported Opium to China to balance silk and tea trade. China blocked opium trade, giving Britain an excuse to declare war. China was forced to surrender trade rights in the Treaty of Nanking.

Tanzimat Reforms

1839 - 1876

Young Turks took power from the Sultan. They instituted reforms to modernize the empire with science, secularization, and minority rights.

Industrial Revolution

1840 - 1914

Urbanization, scientific innovation, natural resources, increased agricultural production, and wealthy economies gave rise to industrialization. Industrialization created an immense need for resources, leading to imperialism.

Marxist Socialism

1848

Karl Marx published "The Communist Manifesto" calling for a perfect sharing community. He argued that the bourgeoisie exploitation of the proletariat would lead to a rebellion against the competitive market system.

Taiping Rebellion

1850 - 1864

Rebellion to replace the Qing with a Christian government. Led by Hong Xiuquan, who claimed to be the long lost brother of Jesus.

Matthew Perry opens Japan

1853

Commodore Matthew Perry forced the Tokugawa Dynasty to open Japan to the West. Japan later embraced Westernization during the Meiji Restoration.

Crimean War

1853 - 1856

War between British-French alliance and Russia to maintain balance in the crumbling Ottoman Empire. Britain and France beat unindustrialized Russia, protecting balance in Turkish-controlled Jerusalem.

Self-Strengthening Movement

1861 - 1895

Chinese officials attempted to modernize China by blending Western technology with Eastern ideologies. The movement faced conservative backlash, and China retained its agricultural economy.

Meiji Restoration

1868 - 1912

Emperor Meiji took power from the Tokugawa shogun. He then instituted the Meiji Reforms, modernizing Japan with Western technology, industrialization, and a strong navy.

Berlin Conference

1884

Headed by German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. European nations agreed to peacefully divide Africa. No African leaders were invited to the conference.

Indian National Congress

1885

Middle class Indians hope to end British oppression. Internal conflicts weaken the movement, but it gives rise to Mohandas Gandhi.

Sino-Japanese War

1894 - 1895

China went to war with Japan over control of Korea. Japan had recently industrialized, allowing it to crush the agricultural empire of China.

Open Door Policy

1899

Created by US Secretary of State John Hay. An agreement with European nations to share spheres of influence in China.

Russo-Japanese War

1904 - 1905

Rival imperial ambitions drove Japan and Russia to war over Manchuria and Korea. Japan beat Russia, proving the might of its modernized navy.

Armenian Genocide

1915

Fearing secret allegiance to Russia during WWI, the Turks turned against Armenian Christians in their empire. Over 1.5 million Armenians died and almost 2 million were forcibly deported.

WHAP Period 4

Christopher Columbus

1492

Christopher Columbus sailed to the Americas on a voyage sponsored by Spain. He was looking for a route to India, but unwittingly began Columbian Exchange

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

Negotiated by the Pope Alexander VI to prevent war between Catholic nations. Gave areas east of Europe and Brazil to Portugal. Gave areas west of Europe to Spain.

Vasco da Gama

1497

Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama discovers an ocean route to India. This reopens trade between Europe and Asia, making commerce independent of the Ottoman-controlled Silk Road.

Protestant Reformation

1515 - 1650

Beginning with Martin Luther's 95 Theses, Europe began to question the power of the papacy. Nations of Europe embraced this movement as a way to gain autonomy from the Catholic Church.

95 Theses

1517

Martin Luther, a German monk, published 95 theses criticizing the Catholic Church. He argued against the selling of indulgences and other corruption within the Church.

Hernan Cortez

1519

Hernan Cortez conquered the Aztec civilization. He was aided by European diseases such as smallpox and exploited rivalries within the empire.

Diet of Worms

1521

Martin Luther was called before Emperor Charles V of the Holy Roman Empire to redact his 95 Theses in Worms, Germany. Luther refused and was excommunicated, causing him to begin preaching Lutheranism.

Francisco Pizarro

1532

Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca civilization for Spain. This led to the discovery of large amounts of silver, causing the Silver Trade.

Scientific Revolution

1543 - 1700

With the Protestant Reformation, scientists began to examine blindly accepted theories of ancient scientists and the Church. Laws of nature were discovered through scientific observation and empirical evidence, often to the dismay of the Catholic Church.

Peace of Augsburg

1555

Based on the axiom "his realm, his religion." Allowed the princes of Europe to choose and enforce Catholicism or Lutheranism within their regions. Meant to prevent religious warfare from the Protestant Reformation.

Thomas Hobbes

1588 - 1679

Opposite of Locke. Believed people to be naturally corrupt and in need of an absolutist ruler to check their selfish impulses. He argued for a "leviathan" government based on rational, rather than religious, law.

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

War between Catholic and Protestant states in the Holy Roman Empire. Began as a religious war, but became a struggle for political power in Europe.

John Locke

1632 - 1704

John Locke was an Enlightenment philosopher. His ideas of natural rights and being justified in overthrowing monarchs is they violate the rights of the people had a strong influence on the Atlantic Revolutions

Puritan Revolution

1642

Supporters of parliament (primarily Puritan) revolted against the Stuart king for ignoring the Petition of Right. Set in motion the end of the Stuart monarchy.

Reign of the Sun King

1643 - 1715

Louis XIV ruled France as an absolute monarch. He waged expensive wars of expansion that led to economic problems and eventually the French Revolution. "I am the state."

Peace of Westphalia

1648

Ended Thirty Years' War. Agreement between European nations to respect each other's sovereignty. Established the nation-state as Europe's form of political organization.

Peter the Great

1682 - 1725

Peter the Great was an enlightened despot of Russia. He abolished the Patriarch, taking full control of the Orthodox Church. He also implemented westernization and civil liberties, but his attempts at reform sent Russia further into the serfdom

The Enlighenment

1685 - 1789

Humanism, rationalism, and empiricism are used by philosophers to challenge the religious organization of society leftover from the Post-Classical Era. The views of Enlightenment thinkers heavily influenced the Atlantic Revolutions.

Glorious Revolution

1688

William and Mary, Protestant monarchs of the Netherlands, are invited to become rulers of England. They signed the English Bill of Rights, guaranteeing civil liberties and protection against the tyranny of monarchy.

French and Indian War

1756 - 1763

American extension of a global war between colonial powers. Debt generated by this war caused taxation that led to the Atlantic Revolutions.

Asia

Neolithic Revolution

8000 BCE

1st Agricultural Revolution. Hunter-gatherer societies settle into villages and begin farming. Agricultural surplus created and population explodes

Start of Hinduism

1500 BCE

Hinduism is the religious tradition of India that has no definite start date, but instead has evolved over thousands of years in the Indus River Valley. The basic beliefs of Hinduism are cycles of reincarnation affected by ones karma, or good deeds. These beliefs are the justification of the caste system in India.

Persia

559 BCE - 330 BCE

Cyrus the Great founds the Achaemenid Empire, uniting Mesopotamia, Egypt, and India. Persian expansion led to conflict with Greece. Persia was eventually conquered by Alexander the Great.

Start of Confucianism

551 BCE

Master Kong (Called Confucius by Jesuit missionaries) taught about the 5 Core Relationships among humans and Filial Piety, or loyalty to one's parents. His teachings were valued by the Chinese emperor, and Confucianism became the state philosophy of China.

Rome

509 BCE - 476 CE

The Roman Republic drew heavily from Hellenistic culture. Over time, power became concentrated in the hands of senators and generals, most notably Julius Caesar, which weakened the Republic. The assassination of Julius Caesar (44 BCE) sparked a civil war that ended the Republic and gave rise to the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire became too large and split into Eastern and Western Rome, the East becoming the Byzantine Empire and the West falling to barbarians.

Start of Buddhism

500 BCE

Siddhartha Gautama, a prince in Northern India, observes suffering in the world and sets out to become the Buddha (Enlightened One). He teaches the 4 Noble Truths and The Eightfold Path, which say that existence is suffering and that the path to breaking the cycle of reincarnation is through selflessness and abstinence from earthly pleasures.

Alexander the Great and his Empire

336 BCE

With Greece and Persia weakened from the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars, King Philip II of Macedonia conquered most of Greece before he was assassinated and succeeded by his son, Alexander. Alexander conquered vast regions, spreading Hellenistic culture as far east as India. However, his life was cut short at 32, and the empire he built collapsed into several smaller kingdoms.

Han China and the building of the Great Wall

206 BCE - 220 CE

The Han Dynasty formed after the turmoil of the Qin Dynasty and ushered in Pax Sinica, or Chinese Peace, with trade flourishing along the Silk Road. During this period, fortifications were built that would later become part of the Great Wall of China.

Silk Road

139 BCE

The silk road was a series of trade routes connecting China to Rome. It began during the Han Dynasty and was later revitalized by the Mongols. The Silk Road declined in prominence in the 15th Century when a sea route connecting Europe and Asia was discovered.

Beginning of Christianity

33 CE

The Christian church began on the Day of Pentecost when the Holy Spirit descended upon the disciples of Christ. Christianity grew from a small Jewish sect to the largest religion in the world.

Byzantine Empire

330 CE - 1453 CE

After being split from Western Rome, the Byzantine Empire, with its capital in Constantinople (a wealthy trade city), thrived for over 1,000 years, even after Western Rome fell. The most famous Byzantine Emperor was Justinian the Great, who made brief progress reclaiming Roman land and codified law in the Empire.

Beginning of Islam

610 CE

The Prophet Muhammad preached in Mecca and Medina, creating a religion that went on to unify the Middle East. Islam is centered around the Five Pillars of Faith and emphasizes brotherhood.

Tang Dynasty

618 CE - 907 CE

Golden Age of China. Chang'an was the pinnacle of Chinese cultural attainment. Nomads payed tribute to Chinese (kowtow).

Indian Ocean Trade Route

800 CE

The Indian Ocean Trade Route was a series of water trade routes connecting Africa and SE Asia. Trade in the Indian Ocean declined when the Portuguese tried to take over commerce along those routes.

Song Dynasty

960 CE - 1279 CE

Chinese Renaissance. Neo-Confucianism and art blossomed during this period. The Song develop gunpowder and the movable type, increasing the spread of Chinese culture.

The Great Schism

1054

Due to conflicting beliefs over iconoclasm and the authority of the Pope, the Byzantine Empire split from the Roman Catholic Church. The Byzantine Empire became the center of the Eastern Orthodox Church

Rise of the Daimyo in Japan

1155 CE

After the fall of the Heian court (Fujiwara), the Minamoto Clan rose to power and began the Kamakura Shogunate. This system of government was similar to feudalism in Europe. However, in Japan, the daimyos (lords) had more power than the Shogun (king).

Genghis Khan Building the Empire

1206 CE

Genghis Khan united the Mongols and launched a massive empire-building conquest. The Mongol Empire revitalized trade and spread ideas along the Silk Road. After the death of Genghis Khan, his empire split into 4 khanates.

Yuan Dynasty

1279 CE - 1368 CE

The Mongols conquered China and began the Yuan Dynasty. Chinese culture became secondary, and foreigners ran the government. The Mongols were unpopular among the scholar gentry and overthrown within a century.

Ottoman Empire

1299 CE - 1922 CE

The Ottoman Empire was referred to as "The Sword of Islam". The Ottomans defeated the Byzantine Empire and took control of Constantinople, changing it to Istanbul. The Ottoman Empire was the pride of Islam, with their elite fighting force, the Janissaries. However, with the decline of the Silk Road, the Ottoman Empire weakened and became known as "The Sick Man of Europe" until it was dissolved after WWI.

Ibn Battuta's Journey

1325 CE

The journey of Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan scholar, began as a pilgrimage to Mecca. However, Battuta ended up travelling much of Eurasia before his return. The record of his journey provides an in-depth look at the Medieval world.

Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

Period of native Chinese rule. One Ming Emperor launched the voyages of Zheng He to display Chinese might. Chinese culture was revitalized after the previous Mongol conquest.

Timur the Lame's Conquests

1370 CE

Timur the Lame, also known as Tamerlane, was a Turkish ruler in the 14th century. He established a brief but bloody empire that paved the way for the Ottoman and other Islamic states.

Voyages of Zheng He

1405

Zheng He, a court eunuch, was entrusted by the Ming Emperor as Admiral of China's Treasure Fleet, the most impressive armada the world saw until WWI. He organized a total of 7 voyages, and his expeditions reached as far as the east coast of Africa. However, the voyages were not popular with the Chinese aristocracy and were abruptly halted after the death of the emperor.

Mughal Empire

1526 - 1857

The Mughal Empire, founded by Babur, was one of the three Gunpowder Empires. The Mughal empire helped spread Islam to India where it blended with Hindu Beliefs. During the Mughal Empire, the Taj Mahal was built.

Qing Dynasty

1644 CE - 1911 CE

The Qing Dynasty began when civil war caused the Ming government to call upon the Manchus in the North for help. Pretending to answer the call, the Manchus invaded, establishing the Qing Dynasty. The Qing dynasty was another period of foreign rule for China. In 1911, the Republic of China rose, leaving behind China's long imperial history.

Peter the Great

1682

Peter the Great was a Russian reformer from the Romanov Dynasty. Peter abolished the position of Patriarch, taking full political control of the Eastern Orthodox Church. Peter was a strong proponent of westernization, and he worked to promote civil liberties. However, despite his reforms, many sank deeper into serfdom.

Europe

Greece

750 BCE - 336 BCE

Greek Peninsula is a collection of city-states. Chief among them are Sparta, a military society, and Athens, the birthplace of democracy. Greek city-states fought Persia and each other until they were conquered by Philip II.

Rome

509 BCE - 476 CE

The Roman Republic drew heavily from Hellenistic culture. Julius Caesar's death sparked a civil war that led to the rise of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire split into East and West, East becoming the Byzantine Empire and West falling to barbarians.

Peloponnesian War

431 BCE

The Delian League, led by Athens, fought the Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta, for dominance in over the Greek city-states. Sparta won, but the war made Greece vulnerable to conquest by King Philip II of Macedonia.

Alexander the Great and his Empire

336 BCE

With Greek and Persia weakened from the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars, King Philip II of Macedonia conquered most of Greece before he was assassinated and succeeded by his son, Alexander. Alexander conquered vast regions, spreading Hellenistic culture as far east as India. However, his life was cut short at 32, and the empire he built collapsed into several smaller
kingdoms.

Silk Road

139 BCE

The silk road was a series of trade routes connecting China to Rome. It began during the Han Dynasty and was later revitalized by the Mongols. The Silk Road declined in prominence in the 15th Century when a sea route connecting Europe and Asia was discovered.

Edict of Milan

313 CE

Roman Emperor Constantine the Great issued the Edict of Milan, ending the persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire. Constantine was also the first Christian emperor.

Invention of the Astrolabe

1051 CE

Arabic Astronomer Abu Ishaq Ibrahim al-Zarqali invented the universal astrolabe in Spain. This revolutionized navigation by allowing sailors to determine their location at any latitude.

The Great Schism

1054

Due to conflicting beliefs over iconoclasm and the authority of the Pope, the Byzantine Empire split from the Roman Catholic Church. The Byzantine Empire became the center of the Eastern Orthodox Church

Renaissance

1300 CE - 1700 CE

The Renaissance was the European revival of Classical themes from Ancient Greece and Rome. The Renaissance saw a rise in humanism, the importance of individuals and their thinking. The renaissance also saw great artists such as Leonardo da Vinci.

Ibn Battuta's Journey

1325 CE

The journey of Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan scholar, began as a pilgrimage to Mecca. However, Battuta ended up travelling much of Eurasia before his return. The record of his journey provides an in-depth look at the Medieval world.

Black Death

1348 CE

The Bubonic Plague, or Black Death, arrived in Europe on merchant ships from China. The Plague was spread by rats, wiping out an estimated 1/3 of the population of Europe. Due to the havoc it wreaked on the serfdom, the Black Death actually pulled Europe out of the Dark Ages and into the Renaissance.

Columbian Exchange

1492

Christopher Columbus began the Columbian Exchange when he traveled from the Old World (Europe) to the New World (The Americas). The Columbian Exchange was the sharing of ideas, crops, livestock, and diseases between these parts of the world.

Protestant Reformation

1517

Fed up with Church corruption, German monk Martin Luther issued the 95 Theses, challenging beliefs of the Catholic Church. He started a movement called the Protestant Reformation, the rise of several non-Catholic denominations of Christianity in Europe.

Africa

Neolithic Revolution

8000 BCE

1st Agricultural Revolution. Hunter-gatherer societies settled into villages and began farming. Agricultural surplus created and population exploded

Rome

509 BCE - 476 CE

The Roman Republic drew heavily from Hellenistic culture. Julius Caesar's death sparked a civil war that led to the rise of the Roman Empire. The Roman Empire split into East and West, East becoming the Byzantine Empire and West falling to barbarians.

Alexander the Great and his Empire

336 BCE

With Greek and Persia weakened from the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars, King Philip II of Macedonia conquered most of Greece before he was assassinated and succeeded by his son, Alexander. Alexander conquered vast regions, spreading Hellenistic culture as far east as India. However, his life was cut short at 32, and the empire he built collapsed into several smaller kingdoms.

Trans-Saharan Trade Route

500 CE

The Trans-Saharan Trade Route was a series of roads connecting Saharan Africa. A major City on this route was Timbuktu, the capital of the Mali Empire.

Indian Ocean Trade Route

800 CE

The Indian Ocean Trade Route was a series of water trade routes connecting Africa and SE Asia. Trade in the Indian Ocean declined when the Portuguese tried to take over commerce along those routes.

Mansa Musa and the Mali Empire

1235 - 1670

The Mali Empire was located at a key point along the Trans-Saharan Trade Route. Mansa Musa, a Malian Emperor, was the richest man in the world. He made an elaborate pilgrimage from Timbuktu to Mecca, sharing his wealth along the way. In some places it took years for economies to recover from inflation caused by his gifts.

Ibn Battuta's Journey

1325 CE

The journey of Ibn Battuta, a Moroccan scholar, began as a pilgrimage to Mecca. However, Battuta ended up travelling much of Eurasia before his return. The record of his journey provides an in-depth look at the Medieval world.

Songhay Empire

1375 CE - 1591 CE

The Songhai Empire succeeded the Mali as the dominant power in West Africa. The Songhai spread Islam and was one of the four major Islamic Empires of this period. The Songhai was the last major empire before France took control of West Africa.

Americas

Polynesian Migration

1600 BCE - 900 BCE

Early humans move southeast through Polynesia in sea-faring canoes. They go further and further across the Pacific Ocean over almost 1,000 years, reaching as far as Hawaii.

Columbian Exchange

1492

Christopher Columbus began the Columbian Exchange when he traveled from the Old World (Europe) to the New World (The Americas). The Columbian Exchange was the sharing of ideas, crops, livestock, and diseases between these parts of the world.

Middle Passage

1500 CE

The Middle Passage was the journey of slaves from Africa to the New World. Thousands of slaves were crammed into each ship and many died along the way.

Conclusion

4 Major Causes and Effects

8000 BCE

Many cause and effect relationships can be observed on this timeline, and they are all connected to each other. Because of the Neolithic Revolution, cities formed. Due to those citys' need for government, empires such as Rome and China came to power. Because these empires wanted goods from each other, trade routes like the Silk Road became prominent. Because such trade routes were well-traveled, ideas such as Christianity spread all the way to Japan. This shows how history is all interwoven.

One Change in Continuity

6000 BCE

One change in continuity was the shift from feudalism to the the Renaissance in Europe. This happened because the Black Death heavily reduced the population of serfs, giving those remaining more bargaining power with their landlords because labor was limited, and the serfs were its providers. With the serfs gaining more freedom, a middle class rose that could patronize the arts. This allowed people to become artists and thinkers, thus beginning the Renaissance.

One Continuity

4000 BCE

One continuity is the prominence of Confucianism in China. Since it's beginning in 551 BCE, Confucian principals have been an important part of Chinese culture. This is because Confucianism promotes loyalty to one's emperor, so it was encouraged by the Chinese state. The introduction of the civil service examination reinforced this by doling out positions in government based on ones knowledge of Confucianism. Because of that, Confucianism has become solidified as a prevalent part of Chinese culture and government.