Six Weeks Project

CREATOR: Charles Loh | AP World History | 1st Period | 2017

Events

Asia

Neolithic Revolution

8000 BCE - 3000 BCE

After the Ice Age of 8000 BCE, the climate grew warmer and allowed for an agricultural surplus. This was a significant change as the Neolithic Revolution marked the shift from hunter-gatherers to more established communities. The role of growing food was given to farmers and gave rise to specialization of labor and several key technological advancements!

Start of Hinduism

1500 BCE

With no “one founder” of Hinduism, the first instances of it are from the “Aryans”(people of European and Western Asian heritage) in 1500 BCE. Its beliefs and practices are based on the Vedas, a collection of hymns and belief in things like reincarnation, dharma, karma, moksha, etc.

Polynesian Migration

1500 BCE - 1300 BCE

Polynesia is made up over 1000 islands scattered throughout the central and southern Pacific Ocean, an ocean spanning more than 40 million square kilometers. It first started when people set sail from Southeast Asia, places such as modern day Taiwan, in 1500 BCE. They continued to colonize islands that spanned the Pacific until around 1300 AD when some communities became more rooted on some islands. They relied on well built canoes, navigators, and weather patterns for proper voyages.

Start of Confucian Philosophy

551 BCE

In 551 BCE, a man named Confucius started spreading his teachings based on interactions between people. Some of these relationships included: father and son, husband and wife, or friend and friend.

Spread of Confucian Philosophy

551 BCE

Confucianism, based on the teachings and writings of the philosopher Confucius, is an ethical system that sought to teach the proper way for all people to behave in society and this attracted many people’s attention. It soon became integrated into Chinese education and influenced nearby countries like Vietnam and Korea (and forcibly to places like Japan).

Persia

539 BCE - 330 BCE

Started by King Cyrus the Great and went on to conquer much of Mesopotamia and his descendants only continued to expand the empire as far east as the Indus R. Valley and west to Egypt. Persians ruled lightly and conquered empires could keep their culture and kings as long as they swore allegiance and paid taxes. They even introduced Zoroastrianism, a type of monotheistic religion which even banned slavery but eventually it all ended in 330 BCE when they were defeated by Alexander the Great.

Spread of Buddhism

528 BCE

Siddhartha Gautama attained enlightenment at age 35 and was given the title of “Buddha” or “Enlightened One”. He sought to teach other people on how to follow this Middle Path and spent the next 45 years of his life teaching anyone who had the desire to seek enlightenment. Buddhism was widely accepted in Central Asia, China, Japan, etc. and its influence can still be seen today.

Start of Buddhism

528 BCE

A royal prince was born in 563 BCE named Siddhartha Gautama and sought enlightenment. After doing so through a period of starvation and giving up mundane things. He followed what he called the “Middle Path” and founded Buddhism in 528 BCE to spread his theology.

Han China and the building of the Great Wall

206 BCE - 220 CE

Han dynasty was the golden age of China and started when Liu Bang, born a peasant, led a group of generals to overthrow
the Qin dynasty. This was a period of prosperity for China introducing the Silk Road and Confucianism rising to be the state philosophy. They continued to build and fortify the Great Wall of China to keep northern invaders out. No dynasty lasts forever though and with various uprisings throughout the country, the Three kingdoms began (Wei, Wu, Shu) and the Han dynasty ending.

Silk Road

206 BCE - 220 CE

The trade route that connected Eurasia East to West. However, silk was not the only thing traded--everything from spices, precious gems, silk, and most importantly--ideas and culture!

Tang Dynasty

618 CE - 907 CE

After a decline in power of the Sui Dynasty, the Tang Dynasty was established by the Li family and was a great period of prosperity for art and culture. All sorts of religions and philosophies were studied, traditions like the “kowtow” were reintroduced, and the Tang also had a huge influence on neighboring states, such as: Vietnam, Korea, and Japan.

Indian Ocean Trade Route

800 CE - 1500 CE

Also called “The Silk Road of the Sea”, connecting Eastern African port cities, the Islamic Empire, India, China, South Eastern Asia, but NOT Europe. Not to mention, it was a bigger, richer, and profitable for every empire participating in this system of trade--not just China (like in the Silk Road). NOTE: There were ups and downs in how often the Indian Ocean was used during its time

Song Dynasty

960 CE - 1279 CE

Also a great time of prosperity for China, this time under the rule of an emperor by the name of Taizu. A lot of new art and culture was introduced but also a lot more very impactful inventions, such as: gunpowder, use of porcelain, and the moveable type.

Rise of the Daimyo in Japan

1192 CE - 1868 CE

Japan was fragmented and feudal until in the late sixteenth century, a group of warrior-like landowners took power. They created a military government called the bakufu and wasn’t centralized; instead, power was in the hands of local lords called daimyos and warriors who were paid by them called the samurai. Later, the idea to become a modern nation-state was brought up and in 1868 they abolished the bakufu for a restoration of the imperial throne.

Genghis Khan building his empire

1206 CE - 1368 CE

The Mongols were a group of nomadic horsemen that are famous for conquering most of the Eurasian continent in less than a century. They were terrifying and were united under Genghis Khan; they conquered empire after empire and with their amazing bow plus horses, they were unstoppable. However, empires don’t last forever and the Black Plague and the Ming Dynasty regaining power signaled the end for the Mongolian empire.

Yuan Dynasty

1279 CE - 1368 CE

Major change to China it was the first time a foreigner was ruling over China--the Mongols. Revitalized trans-Eurasian trade but in terms of government, positions were given to Mongolians and the Chinese were mostly alienated. Additionally, the Mongols were religiously tolerant, but their way of conquest was brutal, and arguably, inhumane.

Ottoman Empire

1300 CE - 1919 CE

The Ottoman Empire followed the decline of the Mongol Empire. Founded in Western Anatolia by Osman, the Turks quickly expanded to become one of history's most important and longest-lasting empires. This was thanks to expansion and control of both the Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade which brought in a lot of profit!

Ibn Battuta’s Journey

1325 CE - 1354 CE

Leaving his hometown of Morocco, Ibn Battuta went on his pilgrimage to Mecca. But he did not start there. He spent the rest of his life traveling throughout the Islamic World and recording his travels. He was treated like a king and welcomed on his journey and his book is still read today.

Ming China

1368 CE - 1644 CE

After the death of Kublai Khan, the Yuan Dynasty went into decline and Zhu Yuanzhang (a peasant leader) defeated the Mongols and ruled from 1368-->1644 CE. During the Ming Dynasty, the civil service exams were reintroduced, Chinese weren’t alienated, more trade, Zheng He went on his voyages, and it was an overall great time of prosperity.

Voyages of Zheng He

1405 CE - 1433 CE

Zheng He was a great Chinese mariner and led 7 great “Treasure Voyages” throughout the Indian Ocean. They were called “Treasure Voyages” because he used what was called “treasure ships”--which were great, wooden ships which were almost 400 feet in length--not to mention, Zheng He’s voyages was the beginning of Chinese exploration!

Mughal Empire

1526 CE - 1857 CE

Of the great Muslim Empires of the Early Modern period, the Mughal Empire was by far the largest. The most important aspects of the Mughal Empire aside from its size, would be that it was Islamic and took over most of the Indian subcontinent. Not to mention, the Taj Mahal was built at this time--undoubtedly a great feat in infrastructure.

Qing Dynasty

1644 CE - 1912 CE

The Manchu people of northern China made a large army and overthrew the Ming dynasty. The Manchu were harsh leaders and blocked out the outside world going as far as banning Christianity. In the end, Multiple natural disasters, internal rebellions, and war with Japan all led to famine and a poor economy, the Qing were overthrew and the Republic of China was born.

Peter the Great

1672 CE - 1725 CE

Peter the Great was a Russian czar in the late 17th century, who is best known for his extensive reforms in an attempt to make Russia a better nation. He saw how undeveloped Russia was and Westernized it, creating a stable navy and organizing the army up to Western standards. Peter focused on the development of science and hired experts to educate his people about technological advancements, commerce, and industry

Europe

Greece

800 BCE - 146 BCE

The Greek empire was the hub for architecture, philosophy and learning. They established democracy and lived in separate city-states. They even conquered the Persians but after Alexander’s death, Greece succumbed to Roman rule in 146 BCE.

Alexander the Great and his Empire

356 BCE - 323 BCE

At just 20 years old, Alexander claimed the Macedonian throne and followed in his father’s footsteps. He turned out to be a great general and by 323 BCE, he had rapidly expanded the empire (despite going against powers like the Persians) and most of the land known by at the time was under his control!

Silk Road

206 BCE - 220 CE

The trade route that connected Eurasia East to West. However, silk was not the only thing traded--everything from spices, precious gems, silk, and most importantly--ideas and culture!

Invention of the Astrolabe

200 BCE

The astrolabe was invented by a man by the name of Hipparchus and is arguably, the most important invention of the Age of Exploration. This is because it could determine local time and latitude, measure the angles of stars, and locate the positions of the Sun, Moon, planets, and more components of astronomy.

Rome

27 BCE - 476 CE

The Roman Empire began in 27 BCE when Octavian, then named Caesar Augustus, started Pax Romana, the golden age of Rome. It began in a period of peace and was leaps and bounds ahead in technology and military power, other empires couldn’t even dent the Romans. Then, an unstable economy and rampant inflation led to the fall of the Roman Empire, the nomadic horsemen ravaged what was left, and the west fell, leaving the east to become the Byzantine empire.

Beginning of Christianity

32 CE

Christianity started with Jesus of Nazareth, a Jewish prophet and teacher who came to believe he was the Son of God. His teachings were famous with the poor lower classes of Rome and gained lots of suspicion from the higher class; they eventually crucified him and on the third day he rose from the dead proving he was the son of God. This belief helped the religion spread throughout the world.

Spread of Christianity

32 CE

Christianity was at first dangerous and those who were of Christian faith were executed. Eventually, Rome made Christianity legal and Christianity soon became the state religion. The spread of Christianity was made a lot easier by the efficiency of the Roman Empire.

Byzantine Empire

330 CE - 1453 CE

Also known as Eastern Rome, the Byzantine Empire was all that was left of Rome after Western Rome was overrun by barbarians. The Byzantine Empire survived with its access to trade with other nations and with the guidance of emperors like Justinian the Great.

Justinian the Great and his Empire

527 CE - 565 CE

Born in 483 CE, Justinian was the Byzantine empire’s emperor (Eastern Rome) and was comparable to the heights of people like Alexander the Great. He was known for his reform and codification of law as he chased his main goal: reunited with Western Rome.

Spread of Islam

610 CE

Islam’s is simple unlike Christianity and thanks to the Silk Road, Muslim merchants would propagate the religion across the world. Since it was necessary to make a pilgrimage to Mecca once in your life, Islamic travelers would have even more chances to spread their ideas. Islam continues to spread and is the second biggest religion of the modern world.

Beginning of Islam

610 CE

Islam starts with a man named Muhammad when he comes down from the mountains in Mecca after meditating and a miracle leaves the illiterate individual with a handwritten copy of the Qoran. This miracle is the story of the beginning of Islam and this simple idea of one God spreads like wildfire because of the Silk Road just nearby.

Indian Ocean Trade Route

800 CE - 1500 CE

Also called “The Silk Road of the Sea”, connecting Eastern African port cities, the Islamic Empire, India, China, South Eastern Asia, but NOT Europe. Not to mention, it was a bigger, richer, and profitable for every empire participating in this system of trade--not just China (like in the Silk Road). NOTE: There were ups and downs in how often the Indian Ocean was used during its time

Renaissance

1300 CE - 1700 CE

The simple definition of the Renaissance would be the cultural rebirth after the black death when ideas flourished. Not to mention, trade was revived with the introduction of a wealthy middle class of bankers and merchants. Some ideas included Humanism and many new styles of art.

Ottoman Empire

1300 CE - 1919 CE

The Ottoman Empire followed the decline of the Mongol Empire. Founded in Western Anatolia by Osman, the Turks quickly expanded to become one of history's most important and longest-lasting empires. This was thanks to expansion and control of both the Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade which brought in a lot of profit!

Ibn Battuta’s Journey

1325 CE - 1354 CE

Leaving his hometown of Morocco, Ibn Battuta went on his pilgrimage to Mecca. But he did not start there. He spent the rest of his life traveling throughout the Islamic World and recording his travels. He was treated like a king and welcomed on his journey and his book is still read today.

Black Death

1346 CE - 1353 CE

Spread across Europe and is a catastrophic epidemic in European history. During that time, ⅔ of Europe’s population died and no one knew what was going on. Now, we know that it was spread by rats, through the Silk Road and the main cause can be traced down to the Mongols.

Columbian Exchange

1492 CE - 1700 CE

The Columbian Exchange was the interchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the Americas following Columbus' arrival in the Caribbean in 1492.

Middle Passage

1518 CE - 1865 CE

The Middle Passage is a great continuity in history--but not a proud moment in history for any nation that participated in it. The Middle PAssage was the transportation of slaves in Western Africa to places like Brazil and the Caribbean (New World) as a labor force. The slaves faced horrible living conditions, harsh work loads, and were treated with no rights...

Africa

Neolithic Revolution

8000 BCE - 3000 BCE

After the Ice Age of 8000 BCE, the climate grew warmer and allowed for an agricultural surplus. This was a significant change as the Neolithic Revolution marked the shift from hunter-gatherers to more established communities. The role of growing food was given to farmers and gave rise to specialization of labor and several key technological advancements! This was the beginning of civilization.

Silk Road

206 BCE - 220 CE

The trade route that connected Eurasia East to West. However, silk was not the only thing traded--everything from spices, precious gems, silk, and most importantly--ideas and culture!

Indian Ocean Trade Route

800 CE - 1500 CE

Also called “The Silk Road of the Sea”, connecting Eastern African port cities, the Islamic Empire, India, China, South Eastern Asia, but NOT Europe. Not to mention, it was a bigger, richer, and profitable for every empire participating in this system of trade--not just China (like in the Silk Road). NOTE: There were ups and downs in how often the Indian Ocean was used during its time

Trans-Saharan Trade Route

800 CE - 1700 CE

As the name suggests, the Trans-Saharan trade route was over the Sahara Desert and connected cities in Northern Africa to other cities willing to trade (parts of Europe too). It was mainly done with camels and caravans.

Mansa Musa and the Mali Empire

1280 CE - 1337 CE

Mali Empire overall lasted from 1230 CE→ 1670 CE but Mansa Musa ruled from 1280 CE→ 1337 CE. He is famous for displaying his wealth on the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca) and brought more attention to West Africa. As a ruler, Mansa Musa tried to get his empire to adopt Islam.

Ottoman Empire

1300 CE - 1919 CE

The Ottoman Empire followed the decline of the Mongol Empire. Founded in Western Anatolia by Osman, the Turks quickly expanded to become one of history's most important and longest-lasting empires. This was thanks to expansion and control of both the Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade which brought in a lot of profit!

Ibn Battuta’s Journey

1325 CE - 1354 CE

Leaving his hometown of Morocco, Ibn Battuta went on his pilgrimage to Mecca. But he did not start there. He spent the rest of his life traveling throughout the Islamic World and recording his travels. He was treated like a king and welcomed on his journey and his book is still read today.

Songhay Empire

1464 CE - 1591 CE

The Songhay Empire was the empire that took over the gold and salt trade from the Mali Empire (no wonder why it is so important). At its peak, it was one of the largest states in African history.

Middle Passage

1518 CE - 1865 CE

The Middle Passage is a great continuity in history--but not a proud moment in history for any nation that participated in it. The Middle PAssage was the transportation of slaves in Western Africa to places like Brazil and the Caribbean (New World) as a labor force. The slaves faced horrible living conditions, harsh work loads, and were treated with no rights...

Americas

Columbian Exchange

1492 CE - 1700 CE

The Columbian Exchange was the interchange of plants, animals, and diseases between the Old World and the Americas following Columbus' arrival in the Caribbean in 1492.

Middle Passage

1518 CE - 1865 CE

The Middle Passage is a great continuity in history--but not a proud moment in history for any nation that participated in it. The Middle PAssage was the transportation of slaves in Western Africa to places like Brazil and the Caribbean (New World) as a labor force. The slaves faced horrible living conditions, harsh work loads, and were treated with no rights...