The Byzantine Empire, also known as the Eastern Roman Empire, was an empire that existed past the fall of Rome and the Western Roman Empire. It flourished under many great rulers.
The Empire of Ghana was one of the first trading empires to emerge and become successful in this time period.
Muhammad was the person who paved the path for Islam. He is also the last prophet from a series of prophets (another one was Jesus).
The Sui Dynasty in China was the foundation for later dynasties to build off of. While it was short-lived, the dynasty saw quite a lot of growth and innovation.
The Tang Dynasty in China followed the Sui dynasty that heavily innovated and grew and started a "golden age" in China.
The Umayyad Caliphate was the first powerful and notable caliphate in history.
The Abbasid Caliphate overthrew the Umayyad Caliphate and reigned under Muhammad's uncle, whose name influences the dynasty name. They ruled until the Mongols invaded and took over.
The Song dynasty follows the Tang. Trade under the Song flourishes as new policies are made and innovations in inventions and knowledge reel in merchants, traders, and scholars.
The Schism was the splitting of the Christian World or Church into the Eastern Orthodox and the Roman Catholic Churches.
The First Crusade was the start of several battles/wars that ensue to capture the Holy Land. This first was followed by several more as power shifted from one side to the other.
The Delhi Sultanate was a state in India under Muslim rule that was headed in Delhi. It spanned much of the Indian subcontinent.
The Mongol Empire, first started by Genghis Khan, was the largest land empire in history. The empire could have gone further if not for the worsening of Genghis' health. This empire connected trade routes that were previously untouched or isolated.
The Mali Empire was a West African empire started by Sundiata after overthrowing the ruling tribe. Later, Mansa Musa becomes the ruler and is known for getting Mali known to the world. This empire becomes a trade center for Islamic knowledge.
Marco Polo was a Venetian merchant and traveler who traveled with his father towards Eastern Asia to meet Kublai Khan. He later goes on various other journeys that he writes down.
The Yuan Dynasty was the "Chinese" dynasty created by the Mongols, so it technically isn't a Chinese dynasty. The specific person who founded the dynasty was Kublai Khan, a grandson of Genghis Khan.
The Ottoman Empire was founded in Anatolia by Turkish tribes and grew to become a powerful empire until its demise in 1922. One of its major feats is taking over Byzantium, the capital of the Byzantine Empire.
Ibn Battuta was a Morrocan scholar who travelled throughout the Islamic world. His first journey started when he decided to make the Pilgrimage to Mecca. He later traveled to other places under Muslim rule. He wrote his thoughts and observations down and since their discovery, we now know a lot more about the post-classical world.
Also called the Bubonic Plague, The Black Death was a devastating disease that wiped out approximately a third of post-classical Europe's population. The disease has been said to originate from Eastern Asia under Mongol rule.
The Ming Dynasty is the dynasty that overthrows the Yuan or Mongol Dynasty. This dynasty reestablished Chinese rule back to China. They also sponsored Zheng He's voyages, until a new ruler was established. The new ruler decided to focus inwards rather than showing China's might outwards.
Zheng He, a Chinese admiral for the Ming Dynasty, conducted several voyages to various regions around the world. His voyages were meant to show how powerful China had become and how much more powerful they will become.