Cause of the Crimean War

Long-term causes

Greek War of Independence

3/17/1821 - 5/25/1832

Independence wars rose within the Ottoman Empire. The Independence of Greece was essential to the collapse of the Ottoman Empire which occurs later on after the Crimean war.


1828 - 1829

Russo-Turkish war was initially sparked by the Greek war of Independence. It ended as the Ottoman Empire’s defeat.

Treaty of Edrine (Adrianople)


This treaty led to further weakening of the Ottoman Empire by enforcing Russia's power over the Black Sea (Territorial gains) and demanding Turkey for compensations of the previous war.

Convention of Balta Liman


The Ottoman Empire allowed Britain to freely trade under their fixed conditions of the treaty. This treaty also forbade absolute power during the process of trading.

Britain allies with the Ottoman Empire


Due to the Convention of Balta Liman, Britain realizes the importance of keeping the Ottoman Empire (stability of world) and so allies with the Ottoman Empire.

Immediate causes

France's demands over the Holy places


France demanded restoration of the rights of Catholicism over the Holy places. Their demands weren’t entirely because of their religion, but were partly Russia’s fault for insulting France.

France seize control of Holy places


France secures power to the Palestinian holy places from Abd al-Majid.

Menshikov Mission to constantinople


Menschikov mission arrived in Constantinople with Czars demands to coerce the Sultan into giving power over the Holy places and the Black Sea.

Turks turn to Russia's demands


The Turkish government disapproves to Russia’s counter demands. Basically, they wanted granted rights of the Orthodox Church and Russia’s freedom in occupying the Ottoman Empire.

Ottoman Empire and Russia, Break off relations


Britain feared Russia’s counteracts towards the Ottoman Empire; the black sea was crucial in trading with other countries. This encouraged Britain to fight against Russia while supporting the Ottoman Empire by approaching to Dardanelles.

Invasion of Moldavia and Wallachia


Russia and the Ottoman Empire broke off relations, in respond Russia retorted by invading Moldavia and Wallachia

Britain in action


The British fleet approached the Dardanelles as a show of force in support of the Turks

War against Russia


With the help of Britain, France, and partly from Austria, the Ottoman Empire declared war on Russia.

Crimean War

The Battle of Oltenitza

11/4/1853 - 11/15/1853

he battle of Oltenitza was the first military engagement of the Crimean War. It ended as a tactical victory of the Ottoman Empire and driven the Russians off Oltenitza, the land of Southern Romania.