George Washington initiated the “civilization” program among Cherokees. They had to do that in order to stay in Georgia.
Georgia ceded some of its western lands to the United States. The U.S. government, in exchange, promised to purchase all of the Indian lands remaining within Georgia. However, the Federal Government could only buy the land through treaties.
Cherokees became the most “civilized” of the five “Civilized Tribes”. The Cherokee had a newspaper and many had converted to Christianity; they adopted a Constitution; they had farms and owned slaves.
A New President
Andrew Jackson is elected President. He supports the removal of the Cherokee.
Georgia extended its state power over Cherokee Nation. They made Cherokee law illegal.
Worcester vs. Georgia
Cherokee won their case in Worcester v. Georgia. U.S. Supreme Court
upheld Cherokee sovereignty in Georgia. Andrew Jackson ignored the ruling.
Treaty of New Echota
Treaty of New Echota provided for the removal of Cherokees to land
west of the Mississippi. Chief John Ross led 15,000 in protesting the treaty. Only 2,000 Cherokee agreed to migrate voluntarily.