Indian Removal Timeline


Peace Treaty


The first treaty between Cherokee and United States. It established a peaceful relationship.

Civilization Program


George Washington initiated the “civilization” program among Cherokees. They had to do that in order to stay in Georgia.

Gaining Land


Georgia ceded some of its western lands to the United States. The U.S. government, in exchange, promised to purchase all of the Indian lands remaining within Georgia. However, the Federal Government could only buy the land through treaties.



Cherokees became the most “civilized” of the five “Civilized Tribes”. The Cherokee had a newspaper and many had converted to Christianity; they adopted a Constitution; they had farms and owned slaves.

A New President


Andrew Jackson is elected President. He supports the removal of the Cherokee.

Extended Power


Georgia extended its state power over Cherokee Nation. They made Cherokee law illegal.

Worcester vs. Georgia


Cherokee won their case in Worcester v. Georgia. U.S. Supreme Court
upheld Cherokee sovereignty in Georgia. Andrew Jackson ignored the ruling.

Treaty of New Echota


Treaty of New Echota provided for the removal of Cherokees to land
west of the Mississippi. Chief John Ross led 15,000 in protesting the treaty. Only 2,000 Cherokee agreed to migrate voluntarily.

Going West


U.S. government sent in 7,000 troops, who forced the Cherokees out at
bayonet point. 4,000 Cherokee people died of cold, hunger, and
disease on their way to the western lands.

Ridge's Execution


Major Ridge, John Ridge, and Elias Boudinot were executed. They were killed because of their role in the Treaty of New Echota