Hundred Years’ War, an intermittent battle between England and Anatole France in the 14th–15th over a series of difference of opinion, including the head of the legitimate succession to the Daniel Chester French people crown. The struggle involved several generations of English people and French claimant to the crown and occupied a period of more than hundred class. It is said to have started in 1337 and ended in 1453, but there had been periodic fighting over the question of English in France going back to the 12th century.
1494, The Italian Renascence, though it eventually spreaded through Europe, it began in Italy. Italian merchants and political officials supported the great artists of the period, thus the Renascence grew. The top city-lands were Firenze, The Papal States (centered in Roma), Venice, and Milan. Each of these states grew up with its own distinctive character due to the different forms of government. Florence, the support of the Renaissance, grew powerful as a wool-trading post and remained powerful throughout the Renaissance due to the leadership of the Medici family; who maintained the city's financial military posture were intelligent and generous patrons of the arts.
The Roman Catholic Pope, who had the responsibility of running the Catholic Church as well, ruled Rome. As the power of the Northern city-states grew, the Pontificate increasingly became the seat of an international politician rather than a spiritual leader, and many fell prey to the corruption that accompanied a position of such power. Nevertheless, Rome, the victim of a decline, flourished again under papal leadership during the Renaissance. Venice and Milan also grew wealthy and powerful, playing large role in Italian politics and attracting many artists. Finally in 1527, the Renaissance collapsed under the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V.
The history of witchcraft in Europe begins with both tribe feeling and religious/classical music texts. The texts have roots in Hebrew, Hellene and Roman history. The development of beliefs about what witchcraft meant -- and especially the history of its gradual identification as a form of heresy -- payoff effect over hundreds of years. I have also included a few American language and global events for perspective on the history of witchcraft trials and executions. The number executed on charges of witchcraft is not certain. Estimates have ranged from about 10,000 to nine million. About 12,000 executions have been identified in existing records.
The Northern Renaissance, or the blending of Late Gothic art, was born in Firenze, Italy. The Northern Renaissance refers to the Renaissance outside of Italy but within Europe. In this time, Italian art and ideas migrated North from Italy, largely because of the travels of the German artist Albrecht Dϋrer. Dürer studied, admired, and was inspired by Italy, and carried his Italian experiences to Germany. However, so much changed in Northern Europe in the fifteenth and sixteenth century. Typically, the main centers for art include: the Netherlands, Germany and France, and all of these countries are known by the collective name of Northern, or North of Italy.
Some of the most important changes in Northern Europe include the: Invention of the printing press, 1450, Reproducible media aka woodcuts and engraving, Constitution of a merchant class of art that purchased work, Protestant Reformation, and the translation of the Book from the original linguistic process into the vernacular or common language such as German and French – international trade in urban centers.
Desiderius Erasmus, born October 27, 1469 and died July 12, 1536, Basel, Switzerland; humanist who was the greatest scholar of the northern Renaissance, the first editor of the New Testament, and also an important figure in patriotism and classical literature.
Born on February 19, 1473 in Torun, Poland, died on May 24, 1543, Frombork. Natural philosopher, who was one of the first to propose a formula for a heliocentric ideology.Copernicus continued to study astronomy.
The Columbian Exchange refers to cultural and biological exchanges between the “New and Old Worlds”. Telephone exchanges of plants, beast, diseases and applied science transformed European and Native American ways of life. After Columbus' discovery, 1492, the exchange lasted throughout the years of expansion and discovery. The Columbian Exchange impacted the social and cultural make-up of the Atlantic Ocean. Advancements in agricultural production, warfare, mortality rates and education are a few examples of the effect of the Columbian Exchange on both Europeans and Native Americans.
Commercial Revolution, Great increase in that Begin in the late Center Ages, received stimulus from the voyages of exploration undertaken by England, Spain, and other nations to Africa, Asia, and the New World. Among the features associated with it were overseas trade, appearance of the chartered company, acceptance of the rule of mercantilism, the creation of a money economic system, increased economic specialization, and the establishment of such new institutions as the commonwealth banking concern, the bourse, and the futures market. The Commercial Revolution helped set the phase for the Industrial Revolution.
The Commercial Revolution consisted in the creation of a European economy based on trade, and lasted until it was succeeded by the Industrial Revolution in the mid-18th century. It went through many periods and expansions which is why it occurred for so long. It’s start and finish date is still unknown, but some people believe it began and ended in the 15th and 17th century.
The western intellectual custom, aka, the Scientific Revolution, was nothing less than a way people viewed the earth. Because of this, it was an important revolution, a revolution in human knowledge. Even more than Renascence scholars who discovered man and Nature, the scientific subverted attempt to understand/explain man and humankind. Thinker such as Nicholas Copernicus (1473-1543), the French philosopher René Descartes (1596-1650) and the British mathematician Isaac Newton (1642-1727) overturned the authority of the Middle Age and the classical world.
The authority, consisted of Aristotle (384-322), Ptolemaeus (c.90 -168) and Galen (c.130-201). The revolutionaries of the new scientific discipline had to escape their intellectual heritage. The revolution in science (16th and 17th cen.), has appeared as a catchment area in world story. The long full-term effects of both the Scientific Revolution and the modern-day science can be felt today, even from ending around 1700! Science and the scientific revolution will forever be an impact on us and for the future.
Separated the Church of England from the Roman Catholic Church and established himself as the Supreme Head of the Church of England. Married Catherine of Aragon. Ruled for 36 years, brought his nation into the Protestant Reformation.
The Protestant Reformation was the 16th-century religious, political, intellectual and cultural turmoil that destroyed the Catholic Community, setting in place the structures and beliefs that would define the continent in the modern era. In northern and central Europe, reformers like Martin Luther, Bathroom Calvin and Henry VIII challenged papal authority and questioned the Catholic Church’s ability to define Christian practice. They argued for a religious and political power into the hands of Bible readings. The commotion triggered state of war, persecutions and the “so-called” Parry -Reformation, the Catholic Church’s delayed but response to the Protestant.
Historians usually date the Protestant Reformation to the 1517, Martin Luther ’s “95 Theses.” It can be placed anywhere from the 1555 Peace of Augsburg, which allowed for the coexistence of Catholicism and Lutheranism in Germany, to the 1648 Treaty of Westphalia, which ended the Thirty Years’ Warfare. The key of the Reformation—a call to purify church service and a belief that the Bible, should be the sole footage of spiritual authority—were not themselves novel. However, Luther and other reformers became the first to use the power of the printing pressure to give their estimation a wide interview
19th council of the Roman Catholic Church, held in three parts from 1545 to 1563. Prompted by the Reformation, the Council of Trent was highly important for its sweeping decrees on self-reform and for its dogmatic definitions that clarified virtually every doctrine contested by the Protestants. Despite internal strife and two lengthy interruptions, the council played a vital role in revitalizing the Roman Catholic Church in many parts of Europe.
Created poems, sonnets, play, all creations of art for the people. (Codified English language) Known as the most famous playwright back then and now in present time!
After solving most of its trouble through war, the land was as bankrupt as it was bound by numerous accord and alignment between the area around it. This mean value that it had little capableness of reacting to future tense trouble . The first and most obvious example of this was the Dutch Insurrection - the rising of the Spanish people colonies in the Netherland, who rejected to be ruled by a king who answered only to the Spanish social class and not to their needs.
Enlightenment occurred when the European government, philosophy, science and communications were radically reoriented during the “long 18th century” as part of a movement in France and throughout Europe. It questioned traditional dominance and embraced the notion that humanity could be improved through rational change. The Enlightenment made numerous books, essay, conception, scientific discoveries, laws, wars and revolutions. The American and Daniel Chester French Gyration were directly inspired by Enlightenment ideals and respectively marked the peak of its influence and the beginning of its decline. The Enlightenment ultimately give way to 19th-century Romanticism.
The Enlightenment’s important 17th-century precursors included: Francis Bacon, Thomas Hobbes, Renee Descartes and philosophers of the Scientific Revolution, including Galileo, Kepler and Leibniz. The Enlightenment went through an early, high, and late phase, but continued to have a great impact on society. Enlightened rationality gave way to Romanticism, but 19th-century Liberalism and Classicism—not to mention 20th-century Modernism—all owe a heavy debt to the thinkers of the Enlightenment.
The Agricultural revolution, a gradual transmutation of the traditional system that began in Britain, the 17th century, Aspects of this coordination compound shift, which was not completed until the 19th century, included the reallocation of landed estate ownership to make farms more compact and an increased investment in technical improvements, such as new machinery, better drainage, scientific methods of nurture, and experimentation with new harvests and organization of crop revolution. Among those new methods was the Norfolk four-course system, established in Norfolk county, England, which emphasized fodder crop and the absence of the theretofore conventionally employed fallow year.
Wheat was grown in the first year and turnips in the second, followed by barley, with clover and rye grass under sown in the third. The clover and rye grass were cut for feed or grazed in the quartering year. Each season had their own special routine. The revolution emphasized contributions of “great men”, lost influence, but the names: Jethro Tull and King Arthur Young are still invoked by those seeking to understand the agricultural revolution, which was an requisite prelude to the Industrial Revolution. It soon ended around the 18th century.
The Industrial Revolution, which took place from the 17th to 19th centuries, was a period during which rural societies in EU and America became industrial and urban. Prior to which, manufacture was often done in multitude’s homes, using hand tools or basic machines. Industrialization marked a shift to powered, special-purpose machinery, factories and volume yield. The iron and textile industries, along with the ontogenesis of the steam engine, played central roles in the Industrial Revolution, which also saw improved systems of transportation, communication and banking. While industrialization brought about an increased volume and variety show of manufactured trade good and an improved standard of living for some, it also resulted in often grim employment and living conditions for the poor people and working classes.
Before the Industrial Revolution, most people resided in small, rural communities instead of urban, where their daily existences revolved around farming. Life for the average person was difficult, as incomes were meager, and diseases were common. People produced the bulk of their own food, clothing, furniture and tools. Most manufacturing was done in homes or small, rural shops, using hand tools or simple machines.
The French Revolution began in 1789 and ended in the late 1790s with the ascent of Little Corporal Bonaparte. During this period, French citizens razed and redesigned their country’s political landscape, uprooting centuries-old establishment such as absolute monarchy and the feudal system. Like the American Revolution before it, the French Revolution was influenced by Enlightenment ideals, particularly the concepts of popular sovereignty and inalienable rights. Although it failed to achieve all its goals, the movement played a critical role in shaping Bodoni nations by screening the world the ability inherent in the will of the people.
France was still governed by privileged groups, the nobility and the clergy, while the productive classes were taxed heavily to pay for foreign wars, court extravagance, and national debt. For the most part, peasants were small landholders or tenant farmers, subject to dues to the royal agents’ taxes, to the forced labor, and to tithes and other impositions. Backward agricultural methods caused food shortages, which created land hunger. With these groups during the French revolution, the population was divided terribly. Depending on your rank, is how much you were known for importance during this period. This ranking was soon led to the revolution.