1820's-1850's Jacksonian Democracy to The compromise of 1850


2nd Great Awakening

1790 - 1830
  • revival of religious ferver -growth of methodists and baptists -begins in the north b/c rapid social change with increase in population -politicize women

Working Class Reform

1828 - 1832

dozens of workingmen's parties arose
supported free, tax supported school
free public lands int he west
equal rights for the poor

Labor Union Formation


National Trades Union was formed


1840 - 1850
  • philosophical movement -new england elite -looked toward nature & inward self reflectio

The Asylum reform


Dorothea Dix reported against the insane asylum
demanded better treatment of patients

1st Perfectionist society


Noyes and his 51 devoted followers founded a perfectionist colony in New York

1st womens right conference


Held in seneca Falls NY


Era of Good Feelings

1817 - 1825

Fall of the Federalist party
One part system
desire for unity

Missouri Compromise


prohibited slavery north of 36'30 line
missouri was in the north
north slave states and south slave state
meant to keep congressional balance

Monroe Doctrine


Europeans should stay out of the western hempisphere
do not colonize north or south america, or us intervention will be necessary

Election of 1824

1824 - 1825

4 candidates:
John Q Adams
William Crawford

Jackson won the popular vote and clay knew he wasn't going to win, so he made a deal with Adams= give me a position in government and I will give you supporters to win the election

Clay's American Plan


roads & canals
preservation of the 2nd bank

Gag Rule


nothing is getting done

1837 Panic


Van Buren
Economic depression
record unemployment

Willmont's Proviso


no territory from the mexican american war will have slavery
calhoun got mad in 1847! government has the right to protect slavery

Calhoun vs. Clay Debate


Debate of texas statehood
should it be a state?
free or slave state- it would throw off the balance

Election of 1848


-Taylor- whig expansionist- does not support slavery in territories
so he wins and then he dies
-popular sovereignty- Cass( MI)
Democratic nominee
-Calhoun tried to make own southern party
-Free soil party(Whigs and Dems)- free speech free soil, free labor

Compromise of 1850


Originally called the omnibus bill drafted by Clay but upstarted by Steven Douglass
1) CA enters as a free state
2)New Mexico/SW territories can decide by state about everything- create gov. by popular vote
3) Texas/ NM border settled w/land going to NM but texas get 10 million to pay back mexico
4)slave trade( but not slavery) abolished in DC
5)stronger fugitive slave law

Kansas and Nebraska Act


Whig Party final disintegration when they chose to support democrats
Stephen Douglas' Nebraska Bill
-organized the nebraska territory including Kansas

-douglas's bill recommended using popular sovereignty in organizing kansas and nebraska

I Know Nothing Party

  • anti catholic party

Competing for Kansas


in 1855 1200 New Englanders migrated to Kansas
then a ton of missouri people migrates & it became pro slavery & northerners were upset
both sides saw kasas as a holy battleground

Three Party Race


I Know nothing party nominated Fillmore
Republicans chose Fremont
Democrats nominated Buchanan

Buchanan won = no more I know Nothing Party

Jackson Era

Spoils System

1825 - 1836

All of your cronies get to be in office

Tariff of Abomination


protective tariff to protect northern industry
- taxed southern exports and imports
-the south relied on imports and exports
- south carolina saw it as unconstitutuional

Universal suffrage

1828 - 1836

all white men could go vote

Bank War

1829 - 1837

-Jackson hated federal banks
-refused to renew the 2nd bank charter
- transferred $ to pet banks

-caused panic= people wanted to get their $ out of the bank, but it wasn't there

Indian Removal Act


NA out
completely ignored marshall courts
relocate to the west
trail of tears

Ordinance of nullification


we can declare a federal law void in a state
SC wanted to ignore the tariff

Force Bill


SC refused to pay the tariff
Jackson enacted this bill saying he has control over the militia, so he can make them pay

Nullification Crisis


Sectional Crisis under Jackson over the tariff

Species Circular Act


you must use hard cash and coins to buy federal lands


Gold Rush


mostly unmarried men looking to strike it rich
few actually succeeded
racism and racial tension in the camps
new settlers in cali

Fort Laramie Council, 1851


tribal council convened at fort laramie
whites told the gathered tribes that times have changed
showed no change will probably occur

Gadsen Purchase


purchased another chunk from Mexico

Bleeding Kansas

May 1856

supported by a pro southern federal marshal, a mon entered Lawrence, smashed the offices and presses of a free- soil newspaper & destroyed homes & shops
John Brown led a small new england band to proslavery settlement and hacked 5 men to death.

Texas and Mexico

Mexico Independence

1810 - 1821

Mexican independence from spain
lots of land but few people
external and international wars occuring

Opening the Borders

1810 - 1830

Looking for more people to strengthen gov. mexico decided to open their borders to us settlers
-no slavery in texas
- convert to catholicism & swear allegiance to Mexico

Close Borders


Texas closes its borders to white people because too many whites colonized in texas and did not pledge allegiance to mexico

Texas' Constitution


drafted constitution @ san felipe

Opened Hostilities

october 1835

skirmish between colonial militia and mexican forces

The Alamo


The general Santa Anna and his Mexican army defeated the texans in the battle of the alamo in texas
almost all texans died
-annas cruelty lead to more support from the US and more inspiration of Texans

Santa Anna Defeated


april- battle of san jacinto
santa anna defeated

Texas Independence


texas annexation

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo


rio grande became the separating line between Mexico and The US
California and the southwest goes to america


Nat Turner Revolts


Slave revolt that killed 55 people
many blacks killed in retribution

Repealed Gag rule


John Quincy Adams