From Brian V The Western Heritage Since 1300 Revised AP Edition http://www.history.com/
The Northern Renaissance originated from the Italian Renaissance as students, merchants, and the Brothers of the Common Life brought ideas from Italy to the Northern Countries. These new ideas from Italy began to flourish among the population and ushered in religious and educational reforms present in the Reformation. These ideas effected the Northern countries much differently than they effected Italy causing a very distinctive culture. The culture was also much different due to the fact that these new Northern Humanists had more diverse social backgrounds. They also wrote works pointed towards the laity which wasn't common for the Italians.
The Northern Renaissance was more prominent because of the invention of the printing press which allowed for works to reach more people. The Northern Renaissance helped the Reformation take place because they took more action in religious reform than the strongly Catholic Italy did. This idea of religious reform was very widespread because of the printing press. More bibles were able to be produced, but also more books about humanist ideas were produced.
The Italian Renaissance began in 1375 but the High Renaissance Art era emerged in 1450. The Renaissance was caused by the loss of international power of the Roman Catholic Church in the Late Middle Ages which allowed the common people to take on important roles in education, culture, and religion. The rapid growth of lay education was supported by national sentiment and national bureaucracies filled with common people in the 14th and 15th centuries, this growth of lay education aided in the improvement of paintings and sculptures in this era.
In 1450, Renaissance art peaked as paintings and sculptures began to grasp human emotions and the natural world. Using their education, artists and sculptors utilized mathematics in their pieces, such as proportionality and perfect symmetry to convey the harmony of the universe and linear perspective in paintings to express the feeling of continuity. Painters also learned chiaroscuro, which is the use of shading to give the painting a more natural aura.
The Commercial Revolution was a movement known for the expansion of business and trade. During this revolution, the major European powers set out to conquer lands to establish strict trade with; which is called mercantilism. Following this increase of business and trade, there was also a growth of general commerce and in financial services like insurance, banking, and investing. There was global trade occurring, between Europe, East Coast of North America, Central America, Both sides of South America, Africa, West Indies, and even the Philippines. The Commercial Revolution ushered in the Industrial revolution because of the new abundant supply and wealth.
These mercantilist empires were established to draw more revenue to the respective home country's economy. As the Europeans practiced colonialism, the livelihood of the natives of the new land were destroyed. As the major European powers colonized the new lands, there were conflicts between them over territory and trade. As these new settlements were established, the home country had strict control over the new settlers. In order to actually profit off of these settlements, slaves were taken from their home lands and forced to work in harsh conditions in the new world were death was common to make products to trade in mercantilism.
The Reformation was a major movement that was focused on the reform of the Roman Catholic Church and the creation of prominent Protestantism. The Reformation first began when Martin Luther posted his ninety-five theses opposing indulgences on the door of a church in Wittenburg. The Reformation was the Schism of some countries into Protestantism from Catholicism. This happened because the Roman Catholic Church was corrupt and would collect money from the states leaving them poorer to use to fund extravagant buildings and other desires. The Protestants challenged some ideas of the Renaissance and strongly embraced others. The Reformation created a society no longer centered by religion. For many centuries prior, the church was the center of the life of the laity.
Because of the Reformation, many wars and minor conflicts will ensue between Protestants and the Catholics over territory. The Roman Catholic Church used to be very powerful, more powerful than many monarchy because the comer's life revolve around the church and the monarchies and nobilities were all Catholic. Because of the Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church became much less powerful. Sometimes, the common people's lives depend on if a ruler is Protestant or Catholic. There were many faults with the Roman Catholic Church that became problems for the common folk, the nobility, and the monarchies.
The Scientific Revolution was a movement known for a wave of scientific discoveries of the universe. These discoveries made man question other preconceptions, mainly religion. The Scientific Revolution caused many to break from medieval thought. These discoveries, along with new knowledge from the new world gave Europeans a very different view of the world much contrasting the views from ancient and medieval times. Some of this new information, like geocentricism, opposed scientific ideas from the bible. This caused much controversy of the existence of God.
The Scientific Revolution wasn't revolution-like. In fact, it was really slow and there were many false discoveries that would either be corrected or contribute to correct discoveries. Often, these scientists would ask common folk to construct instruments and contribute to their discoveries. Because of these new discoveries and much communication, social institutions were erected to further support such important discoveries. Science wasn't a known idea prior to the revolution, but there was natural philosophy to observe nature.
The Agricultural Revolution was a movement centered around new inventions that would further increase the population in Europe. Before the Agricultural Revolution, people's lives depended on good harvests. The food supply was unpredictable and failed harvests for harsh winters meant death from malnutrition or starvation. Because of poor harvests, raised prices would make it impossible for most families to afford grain. Many of the poor would have to rely on the poor relief from their church or government and even they weren't always supplied with grain.
Because of the raised grain prices, landlords were able to invent machines to improve crop yields in what is called the Agricultural Revolution. Because the landowners were able to produce more grain and commercialize it, the peasants that traditionally sold grain revolted because the landowners were competition they could not defeat because of these new agricultural inventions. These disturbances were then demolished by the government's armies and militias. The governments did this because they wanted new taxes and were really controlled by the nobility. Due to the Agricultural Revolution, the population of Europe exploded.
The Enlightenment was a movement that centered around the improvement of the human condition using science, education, economic growth, philosophy, and political reform. The Enlightenment was named by it's participants. Immanuel Kant said the Enlightenment is "man's emergence from his self-imposed immaturity." The Enlightenment thinkers commonly opposes traditional ecclesiastical and intellectual authority because of reason.
The Enlightenment thinkers focused on the idea that humans and understand the functioning of nature and manipulate it for economic growth, administrative reform, and moral improvement. The Enlightenment thinkers pushed for agricultural improvement, increased commerce and consumption, and the application of innovative rational methods to traditional social and economic practices. They viewed Britain and France as models for their ideas and there were cities across Europe that supported their views and put them into action. These ideas eventually reached some rulers who brought reforms to better enforce these ideas into society.
The Industrial Revolution was a movement that had the achievement of sustained economic growth. Prior to the Industrial Revolution, economies would grow a little bit then plateau; most times there would be depressions and recessions. In the Industrial Revolution, there was a great amount of production of goods and services and even overcame scarcity. There was so much production that consumer needs were met immediately and even altered. This industrialization overall improved greatly the standard of life of the common folk.
Because of the great amount of supply produced like never before, the demand for goods also skyrocketed. Because of the great amount of necessities like grains and textiles, there was a great demand for wants such as toys, china, rugs, kitchen utensils, brassware, jewelry, beer, wines, etc. Most of the consumers obtained their wealth from agriculture which they used for most of these goods invented during this revolution. This Revolution was greatly fueled by entrepreneurs developing new techniques for marketing. During this time, inventors were rewarded handsomely because their products made live easier and there were trends the public desired.
The French Revolution was a rapid movement that brought about principles of popular sovereignty and civic equality against the major institutions. This Revolution unlike the others was brought about by the laity instead of the nobility and the monarchy. The armies comprised by the common folk actually defeated the traditionally powerful armies of the nobility. During the French Revolution there were many beheadings of the powerful and the common folk. The French Revolution was monumental in the development of the western world.
One of the major causes of the French Revolution is the French Royal Government's massive debt caused by France's aid in the American Revolution. This overwhelming debt mostly burdened the common folk because taxes increased. The economy got so bad that Louis XIV had to call the Estates General which was comprised of the First Estate (clergy), Second Estate (nobility), and the Third Estate (commoners). The meeting was unfair toward the Third Estate because they had less power even though they were the majority of the population and the First and Second Estates shared more common ideas. Then the Third Estate left to form their own National Assembly and made the Tennis Court Oath which began the French Revolution.
"The Prince" was written by Niccolo Machiavelli. It shamed the ruler's behaviors and explained how a ruler should rule their country. He emphasized the Importance of Italian political unity and independence in making the country great. He expresses the idea that ruler's should be deceptive and brutal in order to gain respect from his subjects and other rulers. Machiavelli wrote this book because Italy was a very weak state and was deliberately attacked by the French, Spanish, and German.
"Ninety-five Theses" was written by Martin Luther and was posted on the door of Castle Church in Wittenburg. It was a list of grievances against indulgences. Luther believed that you cannot pay for remission from purgatory. Also, the church abused indulgences which caused all of Christian Europe to be poorer and poorer, and the Roman Catholic church in Rome to be richer and richer. The money would never come back to Europe and instead was used for funding architectural projects. Many monarchies became very weak and poor because of the major loss of wealth.
"Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation" was written by Martin Luther. It is a treatise composed of economic grievances. Before it was written, there was already strongly expressed protest of the financial and spiritual abuses of the medieval church. It was written in German vernacular instead of Latin. Vast amounts of money were sent to Rome in exchange for a piece of paper that states that you have release from time in purgatory. The ruling powers allowed this as long as some of the money stays in the local coffers but the sale of indulgences went mostly to Rome which drastically decreased local revenues which created resistance. It asked German princes to impose reforms on the Roman Catholic Church.
During the Diet of Worms, the emperor Charles V was presented with a list of 102 "oppressive burdens and abuses" by the German nobility. They stated that the things on the list corrupted the care of German souls. Martin Luther presented his unpopular views which caused emperor Charles V to ban Luther's writings in the Edict of Worms and place him under imperial ban. Imperial ban is the labeling of someone as an outlaw to religious and secular authority. Because of his imperial ban, Luther was hidden by his friends at Wartburg Castle where he translated the New Testament into German.
Martin Luther translated the New Testament into German when he hid at Wartburg Castle after he presented his views during the Diet of Worms which caused Charles V to place an imperial ban on him in the Edict of Worms. This had a major effect on the reformation, because the laity would only learn about the bible from the Church but since Luther translated the New Testament, the laity are now able to read the New Testament themselves and create their own ideas which would soon blossom more reformation religions. The translation of the Bible was a treason to the Roman Catholic Church. They knew the importance of reading and now since it was translated, the Church no longer has the power to manipulate the laity as easily as before. The church was able to spread lies among the laity because the bible was a very important subject in the commoner's life so they would listen to the church as a fact and they couldn't deny or support the church's word because they couldn't read Latin. Only the High class and member's of the Church were able to be taught Latin mostly so they can read the bible.
The Germans either sided with the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church or Martin Luther and the Lutheran Church. The German peasants admired Luther because he opposed Catholicism which was a popular view. The peasants previously would counteract their lords' actions of changing traditional laws and customs to better benefit them in the expense of the peasants. They admired Luther also because he taught the idea of Christian freedom and opposition of monastic landowners. When the peasants started revolting with Luther's name, he denied them and deemed them "in-Christian" and sided with the princes. Most of the Lutherans wanted social revolution, not revolts against the powerful.
The Schleitheim Confession defined Anabaptism. It states that they believe that people should be baptized as adults, pacifism, refusal to take oaths, and absence in secular government. Anabaptists are a radical protestant sect that would desert established society to join a community that modeled the first Christians. Political authorities opposed Anabaptism because of this separation from established society because there was an importance of religious and civic life during the time. Anabaptism was created by Conrad Greblin which focused on the biblical idea that baptisms should take place when they are adults and choose to be baptized.
The Marburg Colloquy took place at the Marburg Castle. Landgrave Philip of Hesse brought Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli to his castle so they can make a mutual defense pact. This couldn't happen because the theological differences were too great for them to be allies. Zwingli believed in the symbolism in Jesus's Eucharist and Luther emphasized Jesus's human nature. The Marburg Colloquy ended up with stronger opposition between the two protestant religions.
The Reformation was spread from the theologians and pamphleteers to the powerful rulers. The rulers then changed laws in favor of the protestants and many german states were ruled by protestants. Because of Protestantism and the loss of power of the Roman Catholic Church, Protestantism began to spread in Germany. These lands ruled by protestants formed the Schmaldkaldic League as a defensive alliance. Before the widespread Protestantism, rulers were already resenting the Roman Catholic Church.
The Act of Supremacy made Henry VIII the head of the Church of England. Before Henry VIII, England was ruled by a strongly devoted Catholic Mary Tudor who was anti-protestant and executed protestants. Then when Henry VIII inherited the throne, he made himself the head of the Church of England instead of the Roman Catholic Church. Henry VIII did this because the Roman Catholic Church refused to marry Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn. Henry VIII turned England into a protestant state and persecuted Catholics like Mary Tudor persecuted Protestants.
The Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres was written by Nicolaus Copernicus and was about Copernicus' Heliocentric (sun-centered) theory. Before, everybody believed in the Ptolemy solar system which was the earth centering the universe which was also depicted in the bible. This book was published in the same year he died. Since it opposed the biblical geocentric solar system model, the Roman Catholic Church banned the book. This book was deemed as revolution-making instead of actually revolutionary.
Because of the reformation, the pope called the church's general council to reassert church doctrine. The Council of Trent was only called 3 times in 18 years and spanned 4 popes. It was prolonged due to plague, war, and politics. One of the main focuses in the Council of Trent is internal church discipline, because the bishops were very bad at their jobs so the Council of Trent made them better by making new rules like preaching more often and requiring proper clothing, better education, celibacy, and more social with the community. Reform was finally brought within the Roman Catholic Church.
The Peace of Augsburg proclaimed that the ruler of the land decides the religion of the people. Because of this, the Roman Catholic Church will never regain the power it once had because many rulers are protestant. If a Catholic ruler converted to Protestantism then they could no longer carry their lands, privileges, and titles with them. People were allowed to migrate to lands that better suited to their religion. The Peace of Augsburg did not acknowledge Calvinism and Anabaptism.
The French Wars of Religion were between the Protestants and the Roman Catholics. It started when Catherine de Medicis expressed more tolerance towards the Huguenots which angered the Guises. Then some Catholics massacred a Huguenot meeting which angered the rest of the Huguenots and there would be battles. There were brief compromises, but they ended with the St Bartholomew's Day Massacre. It ended when Henry of Navarre who took the throne as a protestant converted to Catholicism and the Huguenots were granted religious toleration in the Edict of Nantes.
Catherine de Medici supported the Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre because she panicked in fear of the king's reaction and Coligny's response because she was part of the plot to assassinate Coligny. On August 22 Coligny who was a leader of the Huguenots was hit by a bullet that was plotted by the Guise family. So Catherine convinced her son, Charles IX, that there will be a Huguenot coup soon led by Coligny. So Charles IX orders the massacring of Huguenots in Paris. So on the date, 3,000 Huguenots were massacred including Coligny. This led to more attacks on Huguenots in France and an estimate of 20,000 died.
The "Time of Troubles" was a period under Ivan IV, also known as Ivan the Terrible. When Ivan IV began his reign, he brought sensible reform to government, law, and his army. But suddenly, his personality changed and he began to use his power violently as a tyrant. This ended with his death and after his death, an assembly of nobles elected a 17 year old Michael Romanov starting the Romanov Dynasty in Russia. The Time of Troubles brought much hardship to the peasants but eventually ushered in an era of modest bureaucratic centralization and stability to Russia.
The Edict of Nantes was made by Henry IV and was a formal religious settlement. The Edict of Nantes bestowed upon the Huguenots qualified religious freedoms. The Edict of Nantes recognized the religious rights of small protestant groups in the officially Catholic France. The Huguenots were given the religious freedoms of public worship, right of assembly, admission to universities and public offices, and permission to have fortified towns. The Edict of Nantes was necessary because the Huguenots make up a large portion of the nation.
The Advancement of Learning was written by Francis Bacon and was divided into two parts. In this book, Bacon discusses empiricism which is the belief that there is still more in the world to learn about and discover. He outlines his treatise on the "excellency of learning and knowledge". He refutes King Solomon's idea that knowledge is bad because it causes anxiety because it reveal's the individual's ignorance. He then discusses the difference between pure knowledge and proud knowledge. He states that proud knowledge led to Adam and Eve's story and atheism while pure knowledge leads to the benefit of man.
The New Astronomy was written by Johannes Kepler. It presents Kepler's ten year investigation of the motion of Mars. His findings supported the heliocentric model. He discovered the planets' elliptical paths. Not only did he present his discoveries but also the process which led to his conclusions.
The Starry Messenger was written by Galileo Galilei. It is a brief astronomical treatise written in Latin. It contains Galileo's observations from a telescope of the solar system. Galileo named Jupiter's moons after the Medici family (Medicean Stars). Galileo saw more stars through the telescope than through just the naked eye and he made star charts of the belt of Orion.
The King James Bible is the English translation of the Christian Bible. It became the official bible of the Church of England. It was written from 1604 to 1611 and was translated by 47 scholars, all of whom were in the Church of England. There were translations before the King James Bible but there were many flaws.
The Thirty Years' War happened because of the tension created by the religious and political differences between the Catholics with the Protestants and the Calvinists with the Lutherans. There were four periods of the Thirty Years' War: The Bohemian Period, The Danish Period, The Swedish Period, and The Swedish-French Period. It began when Ferdinand II tried to bring Catholicism back to Eastern Habsburg. It was the most violent of the wars of religion because of the hatred of the other religions and how much they sacrificed for their religious beliefs. The Thirty Years' War ended with The Treaty of Westphalia which states that the ruler of the land determines the official religion of that land.
The Novum Organum was written by Francis Bacon in Latin. In Novum Organum, Bacon introduces the Baconian Method which is an investigative method that he believes is better than syllogism. His Baconian Method would later help develop the Modern Scientific Method. He believed that to discover something you just need to apply reduction and inductive reasoning. Because of this book, Francis Bacon is the Father of experimentation in science.
The Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems was written by Galileo Galilei written in Italian. It is about the comparison of the Copernican system model with the Ptolemaic system model. The Copernican model is the solar system revolving around the sun. The Ptolemaic model is the universe revolving around the earth. This book was dedicated to Ferdinando de Medici.
The Discourse on Method was written by Rene Descartes in French. He wrote it in French so those with good sense, including women, could form their own opinions, more circulation, and more application among the population. In The Discourse on Method, Descartes opposed the scholastic philosophy and supported the investigating of the natural world to better human knowledge which can eventually make humans the masters of nature. In Scholastic philosophy, there was a dogma within the scholastic community that everything has already been discovered and that they should only study past ideas and discoveries instead of discovering and creating their own ideas. The Discourse on Method was monumental to the creation of modern philosophy and the development of natural sciences.
The Peace of Westphalia put an end to all conflict in the Thirty Years' War and was written in French. It brought back the main idea of the Peace of Augsburg, which is that the ruler of the land determines the official religion. It recognized the Calvinists, the independence of the Swiss Confederacy, the independence of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and Bavaria becoming an elector state. It worked in favor of the Protestants because it gave them legal status and power because of the widespread Protestantism among the French rulers. This treaty ended the wars of religion.
The Fronde revolt is a series of rebellions by the French nobles. It is named after the slingshots used by the boys on the streets of France. The Fronde revolt happened because of the policies of Richelieu and Mazarin that tried to bring more power to the monarchy and lessened the power of the nobility. These revolts have failed but they still made an impact. Since the nobility despised these new policies, Louis XIV noticed that these strong policies could put him in danger. Louis XIV desired to make the monarchy the most powerful, but still be able to assure the nobility that they have power.
The Leviathan was written by Thomas Hobbes. The Leviathan is about his political philosophy that a powerful central political authority is necessary for society. He portrays the individual as materialistic and mechanical, he says that all human actions originate from their egos meant to increase pleasure and decrease pain. He saw humans as a machine that only desires power and live only for daily life, not for any higher purpose which he juxtaposes with Christianity. He expresses that a central power to rule the people and limit their personal freedom is the best way a society could survive because self interest leads to much conflict. He explains the social contract theory.
The War of Devolution was the first war of Louis XIV between the United Netherlands and Spain. It was caused by Louis's support for the right of his first wife to inherit the Spanish Netherlands. The first battle was when Louis's army invaded Franche-Comte and Flanders. His forces were repulsed by the joined forces of Sweden, England, and the United Provinces. Louis XIV eventually received some towns on the outskirts of the Spanish Netherlands in the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.
The Secret Treaty of Dover was an alliance between England and France against the Dutch who was a strong commercial competitor for England and France. In a discreet portion of the treaty, Charles announced his conversion to Catholicism if conditions in England safely allowed him to. Louis XIV promised to expensively bribe Charles if he announced his conversion. The treaty needed France to help Charles make England rejoin the Roman Catholic Church. The treaty needed England to help France in it's war of conquest with the Dutch.
The Popish Plot was a misleading conspiracy by Titus Oates that led to the trials and executions of innocent people. Titus Oates announced to the Magistrate under oath that Charles's wife was plotting Charles's assassination with Jesuits and Irishmen. Charles's wife was a Catholic and so was James who was Charles's brother. If Charles were to die, James would receive the throne which would make Protestant England be ruled by the Catholic James. This fictitious story led to strong anti-Catholic national sentiment. This caused the Whigs to try to prevent James from getting the throne. The following years, Charles became very suspicious of the Parliament so he used his power to drive the Whigs out of parliament and control the parliament so when he died, James was left to rule England with a controlled parliament with royal friends.
The Principia Mathematica was written by Isaac Newton in Latin. The Principia Mathematica contained Newton's discoveries: Newton's laws of motion, and Newton's law of gravity. It is considered monumental to the development of science. It is a work that spanned three books. He created mathematical methods in this book that is still used globally in calculus.
The Glorious Revolution led to the powerful monarchy of William III and Mary II. When James II became King of England, he would use his power to help Catholics which would attack the nobility and others with particular legal privileges. James II had a daughter that grew up as a protestant and became the hope for a future protestant monarchy but James II had a son who grew up as a catholic which diminished the nobility's hope for a protestant monarchy. The parliament disliked James II, so they asked William of Orange to invade England. William of Orange accepted the invitation and arrived at England with his army which caused James II to flee to France and then the parliament made William of Orange and Mary II the new Protestant monarchs.
The War of the League of Augsburg began when Louis XIV invaded Strasbourg on the Rhine River. This caused the formation of the League of Augsburg which included the major powers: Sweden, Spain, England, United Provinces, and some major German states. They also had some help from Leopold I who was the Habsburg Emperor. This was a war during the Nine Years' War. This war ended with the Nine Years' War in the Peace of Ryswick which safeguarded Holland's borders and prevented further invasion in Germany from Louis.
The Letter Concerning Toleration was written by John Locke in Latin. In this book, Locke defends sizable religious toleration between Christians. He believed religious toleration could end the religious conflict that has been happening for two centuries. He also believed that the government was meant to protect the citizens, not decide what religion they should follow. He states that the citizen takes different paths in Christianity which causes many religions to have many followers.
The Treatises of Government was written by John Locke which is two books. The First Treatise of Government explains the problems with Patriarchalism. The Second Treatise of Government expresses the idea that the government must be responsible and responsive to the public's concerns. Locke saw humans as creatures of basic goodwill and reason unlike Hobbes, who viewed humans as creatures of self-interest. Locke explains why a political contract is necessary to sort out the individual's daily problems instead of imposing sovereign authority.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding was written by John Locke in English. An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke explains how a human mind is originally a blank tablet that will be shaped by the person's experiences. This book is considered monumental in European psychology in the eighteenth century. This idea opposed the Christian belief of original sin, when the person was born already having sinned. His idea implied that by changing the environment, the human condition can be improved.
The Act of Settlement allowed the Protestant House of Hanover from Germany to have the English crown in the condition that Queen Anne died without any complications. Anne eventually died thus the end of the House of Stuart. The English crown was then bestowed upon the Elector of Hanover, making him King George I of Great Britain. As soon as the Elector of Hanover received the crown, Queen Anne's brother, James Edward Stuart fought George I for 2 months before defeat. This Protestant monarchy brought much change to England.
St. Petersburg was founded by the Tsar Peter the Great. It standed as the capital of Russia for more than 2 centuries before the capital was moved to Moscow soon after the Russian Revolution occurred. Peter the Great founded the city after he conquered the Ingrian land back from Sweden. He named the city after the apostle Saint Peter. Given the weather and geography, there was a high mortality rate so Peter had a yearly conscription of 40,000 serfs to build his city.
The Battle of Poltava is one of the battles in the Great Northern War. Peter I the Great of Russia defeated Charles XII of Sweden. This battle was decisive because it was the turning point that diminished Sweden's reputation as a powerful country and announced Russian Supremacy in Eastern Europe. Charles wanted to invade Poltava and struggled to get there, losing many men. Although he lost many men due to the harsh weather, Charles went on to battle the Russians. Very early in the battle, Charles was shot in the foot and gave leadership to a field marshal and a General. Because of this poor leadership, low morale, and diminished number of soldiers, the Russians were able to defeat the Swedish.
The Treaty of Utrecht is actually a couple of peace treaties between Spain, Great Britain, France, the Dutch Republic, and Savoy. The Treaty of Utrecht ended the War of the Spanish Succession. On one side were the representatives of Philip V of Spain and his grandfather Louis XIV. On the other side were the representatives of Victor Amadeus II of Sardinia, Anne of Great Britain, the United Provinces of the Netherlands, and John V of Portugal. In the treaty, Spain was given to Philip V who belonged to the House of Bourbon.
The Treaty of Rastatt was between Austria and France. This treaty ended the war between only them during the War of the Spanish Succession. The War of Spanish Succession had already ended in the Treaty of Utrecht between the major powers: France with Spain and the Dutch Republic with Britain. All of the countries involved in the War of Spanish Succession had depleted military and the leaders saw the futility in continuing the war so a series of treaties ensued. The Treaty of Rastatt was negotiated between Claude Louis Hector de Villars who was the Marshal of France, and Prince Eugene of Savoy who was an Austrian prince.
The Peace of Nystad was the final treaty of the Great Northern War. The Peace of Nystad was negotiated between the Swedish Empire and the Tsardom of Russia. In the Peace of Nystad, Frederick I of Sweden gave Peter I of Russia Ingria, Livonia, Estonia, and Southeast Finland in return of two million silver thaler. The Peace of Nystad ended the Swedish Imperial era and ushered Sweden's Age of Liberty. This Treaty also ushered in the Russian Empire.
The Table of Ranks was imposed in Russia by Peter I. It was meant to make the nobility participate in state service. According to the Table of Ranks, an individual's social position and privileges were determined by his ranking in the military and the bureaucracy. Before the Table of Ranks, an individual's social position and privileges were determined by their lineage. The nobility were now required to work and there is much resentment towards the tsar.
The Flying Shuttle was invented by John Kay. The Flying Shuttle led to automatic weaving. Before the Flying Shuttle, two weavers were required to weave and had to pass a shuttle between them. The Flying Shuttle revolutionized weaving by putting the shuttle on a wheel in a track and using paddles to easily move the shuttle from side to side. The Flying Shuttle made weaving very efficient, the Flying Shuttle allows a single weaver to weave much faster than two weavers with less effort.
European countries would have trade rivalries and illegally smuggle stuff into the West Indies. The Spanish would search English vessels for contraband. 8 years prior to the war, the Spanish boarded one English vessel and there was a quarrel on ship which ended with the severing of Captain Robert Jenkin's ear. A year before the war, Captain Robert Jenkins presented his severed ear in a jar of brandy to the British Parliament. Such was an example of Spanish savagery towards the British. This caused much support toward preventing the Spanish intervention which led to the War of Jenkin's Ear.
Maria Theresa succeeds the Habsburg throne as the first female Habsburg ruler and the last Habsburg ruler. She inherited the Habsburg empire which included: Hungary, Austria, Bohemia, Croatia, Mantua, Milan, Transylvania, Lodomeria and Galicia, Parma, and the Austrian Netherlands. Then in the same year, Frederick II invades Silesia and the Silesian Wars occurs which led to the conquering of Silesia by Frederick II from Maria Theresa. Maria was then praised for preserving as much of the inherited Habsburg empire as possible and went on to have a 40 yr reign. Later, in the Seven Years' War, Maria Theresa tried to reconquer Silesia but failed. She eventually married the Holy Roman emperor, ending the reign of the House of Habsburg.
The War of Austrian Succession happens between Prussia and Austria. The War of Austrian Succession began when Frederick II of Prussia seizes the province of Silesia from the Habsburg empire under Maria Theresa. Maria Theresa eventually tries to regain Silesia in the Seven Years' War but fails. Because of this Austrian loss, the Habsburg Empire receives a reputation of not being that powerful. Because of this, Maria Theresa struggled to maintain and preserve her empire in which she was successful. France and Britain soon become involved, France supported Prussia because Austria was the traditional enemy and Britain supported Austria because they wanted the low countries not to support France.
The Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was negotiated between Great Britain, The Dutch Republic, and France. The Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle was one of the treaties that ended the War of the Austrian Succession. This treaty only ended the fight between the three most powerful countries in the war, which was Great Britain and The Dutch Republic versus France. This treaty did not end the main fight between Prussia and Austria. In the Treaty of Aix-La-Chapelle, Prussia kept Silesia, and Britain was allowed by Spain to import slaves into Spanish colonies.
The Seven Years' War happened between two European alliances, one supports the Kingdom of Great Britain and the other supports the Kingdom of France. The Seven Years' War was initiated when Frederick II invaded Saxony. Because Frederick II of Prussia invaded Saxony, an alliance formed against Prussia which included: France, Austria, Sweden, Russia, and some small German states. William Pitt the Elder who was the Secretary of State of Great Britain supported Frederick II so France would divert their resources into that war instead of competing with Great Britain in colonizing the New World. In America with the French and British fighting over territory, the American Indians ended with the most loss. So the Main fights were between the French and British over trade in the Americas, West Africa, and India.
The Battle of Plassy was between the British East India Company and the French allies including the Nawab of Bengal. The Battle of Plassy was won by the British led by Robert Clive over France's Indian allies. Following this win, The British East India Company conquered Bengal and the entire subcontinent of India. The British and French valued India because it made silk and cheap cotton for export. The British East India Company was actually a business with it's own army.
The Treaty of Paris was negotiated between the representatives of King George III and representatives of the United States of America. The Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolutionary War. In the Treaty of Paris, the United States are proclaimed as sovereign and independent states. It also sets the boundaries of the British Empire in North America. This treaty gave the United States restoration of it's property, it's fishing rights, and the return of it's prisoners of war.
The Treaty of Hubertusburg was negotiated between Prussia, Austria, and Saxony. The Treaty of Hubertusburg ended the Third Silesian War. In the Treaty of Hubertusburg, there were no major changes in prewar borders between the three states. This treaty was part of a series of treaties that occurred among the major powers in Europe to end the Seven Years' War. Prussia still has Silesia which it conquered from the Habsburg Empire.
The Spinning Jenny was invented by James Hargreaves in England. Originally, the Spinning Jenny allowed only 16 spindles to be spun at once but later revisions to the Spinning Jenny allowed up to 120 spindles. After the invention of the Flying Shuttle, the weavers weaved much faster than the spinners could possibly make thread. So the Spinning Jenny was very necessary to meet the speed of production of the weavers. The Spinning Jenny solved the bottleneck problem of the productive capacity of the spinners and weavers.
The Water Frame was invented by Richard Arkwright. The Water Frame carried the textile industry from the home to the factory. The Water Frame produced pure cotton fabric and was powered by water. Arkwright eventually lost his patent which allowed others to use his invention freely, causing many factories to emerge at water sources and more employment. Because of this textile innovation, cotton output increased at an exponential 800% between 1780 and 1800.
The steam engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen. James Watt took his steam engine and explored it and improved it and got a patent for his improved, more efficient steam engine. Watt soon had the problem of putting his steam engine into practical application. Watt then partnered with Mathew Boulton who consulted John Wilkinson to manufacture the metal cylinders required in Watt's steam engine. With further improvements, the steam engine became the prime mover for all industry and revolutionized transportation with it's use in ships and wagons on iron rails.
When Louis XVI called a meeting of the estates general with representatives from all three estates: first estate (clergy), second estate (nobility), and the third estate (laity) which made the majority of the estates general. The estates general made votes according to the estate vote instead of the individual votes which eventually ruled in favor of the first and second estates who were the minority and against the third estate who were the majority. The third estate becomes furious and leaves the estates general and forms a new national assembly. When the new national assembly left the room, King Louis XVI locked them out. So the third estate representatives end up in an indoor tennis court and swore the Tennis Court Oath that they wouldn't stop until a French constitution was put in place.
Many revolutionary Parisians stormed into the Bastille to obtain weapons for the third estate militia. They stormed the Bastille after the governor of the fortress ordered his troops to fire into the unruly crowd killing 98 people and wounding many more. The Bastille is massive and was known for holding political prisoners. When they stormed the Bastille, there were only 7 non-political prisoners who were eventually freed. Then the angry Parisians found the governor of the Bastille and tried to take him to a nearby hotel but on the way there he was brutally beaten and stabbed to death by the crowd.
The National Constituent Assembly proclaimed the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. In the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, there were a system of rights that applied to everyone so there was equality between all classes. Before the proclamation of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen, the national assembly abolished most of the ancien regime which was a very radical occasion because the ancien regime were very powerful for a very long time. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen states that everyone has the protected rights of liberty, property, and security. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen was based on the political ideas of the Enlightenment and Virginia's Declaration of Rights.
In the first week of the month, the Paris Commune killed around 1,200 inmates in the city jails. Few of the inmates used to be in the First and Second Estates but most of them were common criminals. This happened because the Parisian populace believed all of the inmates were counterrevolutionaries. These massacres were repeated throughout France. The National Guardsmen and few federes went to the prisons and murdered many inmates and every prisoner was suspected of being counterrevolutionaries.
The Battle of Waterloo happened between Napoleon with his French army and two armies, one british army led by the Duke of Wellington and one Prussian army led by Gebhard Leberecht von Blucher. The Battle of Waterloo was the last defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte. Napoleon began by rising up the ranks in the French military during the French revolution then took the French government and made himself the emperor and conquered a lot of Western and Central Europe until he tried to invade Russia during a harsh winter and lost many troops so he was later abdicated and exiled. Napoleon was exiled to St. Helena after the defeat of the Battle of Waterloo.