Women served in the Armed Forces ever since the Civil War. During those times, they would follow their husbands into combat and tend to duties back in the camp such as cooking and cleaning and medical assistance, but that is only by approval of the commanding officer. Up until the last two years of the World War I, women served with the military in unofficial capacities. They usually served in medical or admin roles during this time. Some even worked as spies and even disguised as men for covert operations. This was done in order to allow women equal rights to serve in the armed forces. In 1991, women were allowed to fly in combat missions and in 1993 they were allowed to serve on combat ships. It was not until 2015 when women were officially allowed to serve within combat jobs in the Armed Forces.
Reference: Executive Order 9981: Desegregation of the Armed Forces (1948). (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=true&doc=84
The women’s right to vote on June 4, 1919 was passed by congress, and become official on August 18, 1920. This became the19th amendment and it guarantees that all American women have the right to vote. Having this milestone become a reality required a very lengthy and difficult struggle; it took many and protest and decades of agitation for this to happen. (National Archives, 2015). I included this event because this is a huge step/event that opened the doors for women all around the world. This event affected civil rights movement because it influenced many situations that had the mindset that the sex of a person matters when it comes to things such as “voting”.
Reference: National Archives. (2016). Retrieved from https://www.archives.gov/historical-docs/19th-amendment
Executive Order 9981 was issued by President Truman in order to abolish segregation within the Armed Forces. There were African-American service members prior to Executive Order 9981 serving in the Armed Forces, but this Order helped ensure the fair treatment and training for everyone. Executive Order 9981 stated that "there shall be equality of treatment and opportunity for all persons in the armed forces without regard to race, color, religion, or national origin." The vulnerable class intended for protection was primarily African-Americans, but the Order was designed to protect all races within the Armed Forces. This was a huge move within the Armed Forces. Since the colonial period and all the way through World War I and Korea, African-Americans served in the Armed Forces, but it was believed that they did not have the mental, physical, or moral character to serve in primary roles and they were succumbed to labor-intensive roles and rarely served in combat. To date, 89 African-American service members have been awarded the Medal of Honor. One African-American, Robert Augustus Sweeny, was awarded 2 Medals of Honor.
Reference:African-American Medal of Honor Recipients. (2016). Retrieved from https://blog.fold3.com/african-american-medal-of-honor-recipients/
On May 17, 1954, the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that change segregation of public school systems was unconstitutional in the United States. This case set precedents, for equal opportunity in education for African Americans and other minority groups (“Civil Rights Digital Library,” 2013). The reason its included is that segregation by race should have never happened as all people are created equal no matter the race or by the color of their skin. The event affected the civil rights movement by forcing changes and redefine the nation’s standard practices around that time. However, the ruling failed to address how it will be implemented and enforced. In 1955, the Supreme Court added to it instructing the states to start the process of desegregation in schools and to expedite the process.
-December 5 1955-December 20 1956
-Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus and give her seat to a white passenger. I chose it because it protested segregated seating.
-The vulnerable class intended are all African Americans
- African Americans wanted to be treated with courtesy and that seating should be a first come first serve basis. They also forced bus drivers to drive routes that were serviced by African Americans.
On September 09, 1957, the Civil Rights Act of 1957 got signed into law by President Dwight D. Eisenhower. This event marked the first change the government took since Reconstruction. It established the legislative action to protect civil rights and the protection of voting rights (“Civil Rights Digital Library,” 2013). It also develops the Civil Rights Division of the Justice Department, and it gives government agents the power to go after anyone that tries to deny or restrict anyone’s right to vote. The reason its included is because many African Americans and other minority groups weren’t allowed to vote. Many Blacks were victims of violence during these troubled times (“Civil Rights Act, 1957,” 2014). Its intended to protect mainly Blacks and address the issues that African Americans faced living in the South. This event affected the civil rights movement by allowing people to vote for changes in laws that affect minority groups.
Reference: Civil Rights Act, 1957. (2014). Retrieved from http://www.thekingcenter.org/archive/theme/4735
For people in the united states to get the same pay no matter your sex. Men and women will get paid the same when they are doing the same job and the same quality. This was signed by John F. Kennedy on June 10, 1963. They amended the current labor law of Fair Labor Standards act. The equal pay act was focused on women because they were not getting the same pay as men even when they were doing the same job and sometimes with better quality. This affected the civil rights movement by making everything equal for women and men and gives women the opportunity to thrive in life. ("US Equal Employment Opportunity Commission ", 1947).
Reference: US equal employment Opportunity Commission. (1947). Retrieved from https://www.eeoc.gov/laws/statutes/epa.cfm
-Aug 6 1965 signed into law by President Johnson
-Allowed African Americans the right to vote. I chose this because it was a significant event in history and the changing of our nation.
- The vulnerable class intended to protect African Americans age 18 and up.
-changed history and showed African Americans that their voice mattered and was to be heard.