The Cold War

Events

Yalta Conference

February 4, 1945 - February 11, 1945

Roosevelt, Truman and Stalin

Roosevelt assures Congress

March 1, 1945

"I come from Crimea with a firm belief that we have made a start on the road to world peace"

Averell Harriman Cables Roosevelt

March 11, 1945

"The Soviet program is the establishment of totalitarianism, ending personal liberty"

NKVD arrests 19 Polish opposition leaders

March 27, 1945

Churchill then states it is as 'plain as a pike staff' that Moscow wanted to drag out free elections whilst 'the Lublin Committee consolidate their power"

Truman

April 12, 1945 - January 20, 1953

USA Atomic bomb test

July 16, 1945

Potsdam Conference

July 17, 1945 - August 2, 1945

Truman, Atlee and Stalin

Clement Attlee

July 26, 1945 - October 26, 1951

Hiroshima

August 6, 1945

Nagasaki

August 9 1945

V J Day (victory over Japan)

14 August 1945

General MacArthur given power to re-build Japan

September, 1945

Vietnam Independence

September 2, 1945

Ho Chi Minh declares Vietnam an independent republic

End of WWII

September 2, 1945

Ho Chi Minh announces Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam)

September 2, 1945

UN charter

October 24, 1945

Long telegram

February 22, 1946

Iron Curtain Speech

March 6, 1946

Czechoslovakia Elections

May, 1946

Communists win 38% of vote

North Rhine-Westphalia formed

August 23, 1946

This committed the British zone to merging with the American

Restatement of Policy in Germany

September 6, 1946

in Stuttgart, James F. Byrnes, United States Secretary of State repudiates the Morgenthau Plan. He states the US intention to keep troops in Europe indefinitely and expresses US approval of the territorial annexation of 29% of pre-war Germany, but does not condone further claims.

Novikov Telegram

September 27 1946

Response to Kennan in which he states that the US are "striving for world supremacy"

Communists win 75% of vote in Bulgaria

October, 1946

Dimitrov wins Bulgarian GE

October 27, 1946

Communists win 80% vote in Romania

November, 1946

Start of French-Indochina war

December 19, 1946

Bizonia

January 1, 1947

Polish Elections

January 16, 1947

Poland becomes an official Communist state by 1949

The Moscow Conference

March 10, 1947 - April 24, 1947

Agreed to dissolve the state of Prussia. Failed to agree on peace treaties for Germany and Austria.
Marshall, Bevin, Molotov and Bidault

Truman Doctrine and Greek Civil War

March 12, 1947

All other political parties banned in Bulgaria

April, 1947

Clayton concludes that failure to repair European Economy would damage USA

May, 1947

Kennan's PPS find that focus needs to be on economy in Europe

May, 1947

Marshall Plan

June 5, 1947

European Recovery Programme (Marshall Plan)

June 5, 1947

Communists gain 22% of vote in Hungary

August, 1947

This was despite rigging elections. They continued to use 'salami tactics' until eventually they took over

Hungary announces 3-year plan of nationalisation

August 8, 1947

Cominform

October 5, 1947

UN calls for elections in Korea

November 14, 1947

Strategic Air Command

1948

Dozen Non-Communist leaders in Czechoslovakia Resign

February 20, 1948

They hoped this would force Benes to dismiss Gottwald and create a more moderate government

London Conference

February 23, 1948 - June 2, 1948

Split into two phases
Solved the German question in regards to the British, US and French areas

Strike in Czechoslovakia

February 24, 1948

Communists called a strike of 2.5 million people

Jan Masaryk found dead

March 10, 1948

The last Czechoslovakian non-Communist leader was found dead under the foreign ministry window in Prague

Formation of West Germany

June 1, 1948

This was when Trizonia was formed

Benes resigns in Czechoslovakia

June, 1948

London Conference agrees Germany should have its own constituent assembly

June 7, 1948

Deutschmark

June 23, 1948

Berlin Blockade

June 24, 1948 - May 12, 1949

Yugoslavia expelled from COMINFORM

June 28, 1948

Republic of Korea (South Korea) formed

August 17, 1948

Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea)

September 9, 1948

Comecon

January 25, 1949

Kim Il Sung asks for USSR support for Southern invasion

March, 1949

NATO formed

April 4, 1949

Bao Dai returns from exile as Emperor of Vietnam

May, 1949

Sino-Soviet Alliance

June, 1949

China White Paper

July 30, 1949

USSR tests first Atomic Bomb

August 29, 1949

NSC-68 Approved by Truman

September, 1949

Formation of East Germany (GDR)

October 7, 1949

Petersburg Agreements

November, 1949

Allowed the FRG to join the Council of Europe

FRG joins the Council of Europe

November, 1949

Strategic Perimeter Suggested

January, 1950

Defensive Perimeter Strategy

January, 1950

UK formally recognises the People's Republic of China

January 5, 1950

Alger Hiss Conviced

January 21, 1950

Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance

February 14, 1950

NSC-68 formally presented

April 14, 1950

Phase 1: Offensive

June, 1950 - September, 1950

North advances into South, reaching Putan

Korean War

June 25, 1950 - July 27, 1953

Phase 2: Counter-offensive

September, 1950 - November, 1950

MacArthur lands at Inchon and pushes North to 38th parallel

China joins North Korea war effort

November, 1950

Phase 3: Stabilisation and Negotiation

December, 1950 - June, 1951

By June the USA wanted a ceasefire

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Convicted

March 29, 1951

MacArthur fired from command in Korea

April 11, 1951

European Steel and Coal Community formed

April 18, 1951

Acheson notes the Korean war could destabilise Japan and Europe

May, 1951

Phase 4: Stalemate and Peace

June, 1951 - July, 1953

Neither side launched any major offensives

San-Francisco Peace Treaty

September 8, 1951

Between USA and Japan

Truman signs the Mutual Security Act

October 10, 1951

Announcing to the world, and its communist powers in particular, that the U.S. was prepared to provide military aid to "free peoples."

US makes plans for first nuclear sub (USS Nautilus)

June 14, 1952

Marshall Plan ends

June 30, 1952

National Safety Agency

August, 1952

Japan made an army of 110,000 ground troops and 7600 maritime personnel

UK tests first atomic bomb (Operation Hurricane)

October 2, 1952

US announce plans for Japanese air force

November, 1952

US tests first thermonuclear bomb, Ivy Mike

November 1, 1952

US explodes world first H-bomb

November 1, 1952

China's first 5-year plan

1953

Industry increased by 120%

Eisenhower

1953 - 1961

Stalin Dies

March 5, 1953

Malenkov

March 5 1953 - February 8 1955

Sino-Soviet alliance strengthened

May, 1953

East German Uprising

June 17, 1953

Involved more than one million people
Suppressed (with difficulty) by Soviet tanks and troops

Armistice agreed at Panmunjom

July 27, 1953

CIA and MI6 launches Operation Ajax

August 19, 1953

A royalist coup that ousts Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq
The coup was organized because of Iranian nationalization of the oil industry and fears of Iran joining the Soviet camp.

Khrushchev

14 September 1953 - 14 October 1964

The 'New Look' Policy introduced

October, 1953

NSC 162/2 Presented

October 30, 1953

Defined Cold War Policy during Eisenhower Administration

Dulles announces 'Massive retaliation'

January, 1954

USS Nautilus is launched

January 21, 1954

USA tests more powerful H-bomb

March, 1954

US tests H-bomb in Bikini

March 1, 1954

French defeated at Dien Bien Phu

April, 1954

Geneva Accords

April 26, 1954 - July 21, 1954

The Geneva Conference

April 26, 1954 - July 20, 1954

Geneva Conference

April 26, 1954 - July 20, 1954

McCarthy claims Communists have infiltrated the CIA

June 2, 1954

140,000 strong Japanese self-defence force formed

July, 1954

SEATO established

September 8, 1954

McCarthy voted as bringing the body into disrepute

December, 1954

Baghdad Pact

February 24, 1955

Iran, Iraq, Pakistan, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. It is committed to resisting Communist expansion in the Middle East.

Anthony Eden

April 6, 1955 - January 10, 1957

Allies end military occupation of West Germany

May 5, 1955

Allies end military occupation of West Germany

May 5, 1955

FRG joins NATO

May 9, 1955

Warsaw Pact

May 14, 1955

Austrian State Treaty

May 15, 1955

Geneva Summit

July 18, 1955

Diem refuses to hold reunification elections

August, 1955

USSR tests H-bomb 100x more powerful than Hiroshima

November 22, 1955

Khrushchev's Secret Speech

February 25, 1956

Poznan Uprising

June 28, 1956 - June 30, 1956

Polish October

October, 1956

Students protest for 16 demands in Hungary

October 22, 1956

Hungarian Revolution

October 23, 1956 - November 10, 1956

Nagy Appointed PM in Hungary

October 24, 1956

Khrushchev agrees to withdraw forces from Budapest

October 28, 1956

Khrushchev reverses his decision in Hungary

October 31, 1956

Nagy announces Hungarian withdrawal from Warsaw Pact

November 1, 1956

Red Army Invades Budapest

November 4, 1956

USSR develop delivery system for warheads

1957

Bermuda Conference

january, 1957

Meeting between Harold Macmillan and Eisenhower that led to the agreement of US missiles being placed in Britain

Eisenhower Doctrine

January 5, 1957

Commits US to defending Iran, Pakistan and Afghanistan

Harold Macmillan

10 January 1957 - 19 October 1963

USSR test first ICBM

August 26, 1957

Sputnik

October 4, 1957

Laika Goes to Space

November 3, 1957

Gaither Report, 'missile gap'

November 7, 1957

US Vanguard Rocket Collapses (Flopnik)

December 6, 1957

Iraq taken over by pro-Communists

July 14, 1958

Coup in Iraq

July 14, 1958

Iraq begins to recieve support from the Soviets

NASA

July 29, 1958

US orders $1 billion to be spent on space technology

September, 1958

Khrushchev issues an ultimatum for Allies to leave West Berlin

November 10, 1958

Batista regime overthrown

January, 1959

Development of SLBM

1959

Cuban Revolution

January 1, 1959

North decides to use revolutionary violence to reunite Vietnam

January, 1959

Macmillan and Khruschev talk about peace

February 23, 1959

Kitchen Debate

July 24, 1959

Camp David Talks

September, 1959

Mikoyan offers economic aid to Cuba

February 1960

Gary Powers shot down

May 1, 1960

Paris Summit

May 16, 1960

Collapsed as American U2 plane shot down over USSR airspace

Sino-Soviet Split

June, 1960

Castro promises to spread revolution

July, 1960

US Discoverer Satellite programme

August, 1960

Eisenhower severs diplomatic relations with Cuba

January 3, 1961

Kennedy

January 20, 1961 - November 22, 1963

Yuri Gagarin

April 12, 1961

Bay of Pigs Invasion

April 17, 1961

Project Mercury

May 25, 1961

US Mission to put man on the moon

Vienna Summit

June 4, 1961

Kennedy calls for build-up of NATO forces

July 25, 1961

Berlin Wall

August 13, 1961

Alliance for Progress

August 17, 1961

Start of US aid to Latin America

USSR resumes testing nuclear weapons in the atmosphere

September 1, 1961

Checkpoint Charlie stand-offs begin

October 27, 1961

Soviet Union detonates Tsar Bomba

October 31, 1961

Kennedy authorises Operation Mongoose

November 1961

Strategic Hamlet programme introduced

March 1962

Khrushchev sends missiles to Cuba

May, 1962

Cuban Missile Crisis

October 14, 1962 - October 28, 1962

Kennedy's American University Speech

June, 1963

Buddhist Monk Sets Himself on Fire in Protest

11 June 1963

'Ich Bin Ein Berliner' Speech by Kennedy

June 26, 1963

Test-Ban Treaty

August 5, 1963

Alec Douglas-Home

19 October 1963 - 16 October 1964

Ngo Dinh Diem Assassinated

1 November 1963

Diem assassinated

November 2, 1963

Kennedy Assassination

November 22, 1963

Johnson

November 23, 1963 - January 20, 1969

Harold Wilson

1964 - 1970

Military coup overthrows President Goulart in Brazil

March 30, 1964 - April 1, 1964

He was seen as being Communist

Khrushchev & Johnson announce plans to cut back Nuclear weapon production

April 20, 1964

Gulf of Tonkin

August 4, 1964

Brezhnev

15 October 1964 - 10 November 1982

Khrushchev removed from office

October 15, 1964

Replaced by Brezhnev

China tests Atomic Bomb

October 16, 1964

Battle of Ia Drang

November 14, 1964

First major US and NV conflict

Pleiku incident occurs

February 1965

Operation Rolling Thunder

March 2, 1965 - November 2, 1968

US military build up to defend South Vietnam

March 8, 1965

New Jersey Summit

June 23, 1967 - June 25, 1967

Johnson and Kosygin meet in New Jersey

Dubcek appointed leader of Czechoslovakia

January 1968

Tet Offensive

January 30, 1968 - June 8, 1968

Johnson suspends bombing of NV

March 30, 1968

Preliminary Peace Talks take place in Paris

May, 1968

Johnson announces he is not running for re-election

June 30, 1968

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

July 1, 1968

Prague Spring

August 20 1968

Brezhnev Doctrine

September 26, 1968

Apollo 8

December 21, 1968

Nixon

January 20, 1969 - April 22, 1974

Operation Menu

March, 1969

Sino-Soviet Border Clashes

March 2, 1969 - September 11, 1969

US begins bombing Cambodia

March 17, 1969

Neil Armstrong & Edwin Aldrin walk on the Moon

June 20, 1969

Nixon Doctrine

July 25, 1969

Vietnamization begins

July 25, 1969

Vietnamisation Announced to the Public

November, 1969

Edward Heath

1970 - 1975

Nuclear Non Proliferation Treaty Enters into force

March 5 1970

Lon Nol takes power in Cambodia

March 18, 1970

US troops ordered to go to Cambodia

April 30, 1970

US begins to support Lon Nol

November 18, 1970

Nixon backs ARVN invasion of Laos

February, 1971

South Vietnamese intercept Ho Chi Minh Trail

February 8, 1971

Operation FOOT

September, 1971

105 Soviet Officials expelled from GBr by Edward Heath

Four Power Agreement on Berlin

September 3 1971

Signed by USSR, USA, Britain and France

UN formally recognises People's Republic of China

October 25, 1971

Nixon visits China

February 21, 1972

NLF offensive crushed by US air support

March 30, 1972

Kissinger secretly visits Moscow

April, 1972

SALT I

May 26, 1972

Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

May 26, 1972

Lowest number of troops in Vietnam since 1965

June 1972

Nixon announces bombing campaign on NV

December 18, 1972

Basic Treaty

December 21, 1972

Paris Peace Accords

January 27, 1973

End American involvement in Vietnam. Congress cuts off funds for continued bombing of Indochina

Allende Overthrown in Chile- Replaced by Pinochet

September 11, 1973

Gerald Ford

1974 - 1977

Harold Wilson

1974 - 1976

SEATO ends with France leaving

June, 1974

Vladivostok Summit

November 23, 1974 - November 24, 1974

Khmer Rouge take control of Cambodia

April 17, 1975

The 'killing fields'

Capture of Saigon

30 April 1975

North Vietnam wins war

April 30, 1975

Mayagüez incident

May 12, 1975

Khmer Rouge seize an American Naval Ship

Apollo-Soyuz Test Project

July 15, 1975 - July 24, 1975

A symbol of detente, a joint space mission between USA and USSR heralded as the end of the 'space race'

Helsinki Final Act

August 1, 1975

Helsinki Final Act of the Conference on Security and Co-operation in Europe signed by the United States, Canada, the Soviet Union and Europe

Pathet Lao takes power in Laos

November 29, 1975

Zhou Enlai dies

January 8, 1976

James Callaghan

5 April 1976 - 4 May 1979

Death of Mao Zedong

September 9, 1976

Charter 77 signed by Czech intellectuals

January 1, 1977

Jimmy Carter

January 20 1977 - 1981

Cyrus Vance announces USSR will be accountable for crackdowns on human rights activists

June 6, 1977

Iranian Revolution

January 1978 - February 1979

Daoud's regime otherthrown

April 27, 1978

Communist Regime in Afghanistan

December 25, 1978

Khmer Rouge overthrown by Vietnam

January 7, 1979

Iranian Revolution ousts Shah

January 16, 1979

Sino-Vietnamese war

February 17, 1979

Margaret Thatcher

4 May 1979 - 28 November 1990

SALT II Agreement

June 18, 1979

Carter agrees to give aid to opponents of pro-Soviet regime in Afghanisatin

July 3, 1979

Sandinista victory in Nicaraguan revolution

July 17, 1979

Nur Mohammed Taraki (Communist President) is murdered

September, 1979

Taraki murdered and replaced by Amin

September, 1979

Iranian Hostage Crisis

November 4, 1979 - January 20, 1981

53 Americans taken hostage

NATO Double-track Decision

December 12, 1979

Soviet Afghan War

December 24, 1979 - February 15, 1989

Detente ends with USSR invasion of Afghanistan

December 24, 1979

Olympic Boycott by USA

July 1980

USA boycott Moscow Olympics in protest of Afghanistan invasion

Gdańsk Agreement in Poland

August 31, 1980

Ronald Reagan

January 20 1981 - January 20 1989

Gulf of Sidra incident

August 19, 1981

Soviet Sub runs aground (U137)

October 21, 1981

Martial Law in Poland

December 13, 1981 - July 22, 1983

Military government brought into Poland to crush opposition

"Caribbean Basin Initiative"

February 24, 1982

President Ronald Reagan signs P.L. 97-157

March 22, 1982

Falklands War Begins

April 2, 1982

End of Falklands War

June 14, 1982

Andropov

November 12 1982 - February 9 1984

Soviet spy Dieter Gerhardt is arrested in New York.

January, 1983

Soviet spy arrested in NY

January, 1983

Reagan labels the Soviet Union an "evil empire".

March 8, 1983

Ronald Reagan proposes the Strategic Defense Initiative

March 23, 1983

Civilian Korean Air Lines Flight 007 shot down by USSR

September 1, 1983

The U.S.S.R. nuclear early warning system reports US missile launch

September 26, 1983

US invasion of Grenada

October 25, 1983 - December 15, 1983

Able Archer 83

November 2, 1983 - November 11, 1983

Soviet anti-aircraft misinterpret a test of NATO's nuclear warfare procedures as a fake cover for an actual NATO attack; in response, Soviet nuclear forces are put on high alert.

Chernenko

February 13 1984 - March 10 1985

Gorbachev

March 11, 1985 - December 25, 1991

USSR announces monatorium on nuclear testing

August 6, 1985 - February 5, 1987

Reagan sees as dramatic and won't follow suit. Gorbachev suggests many extensions, but US refuses causing it to come to an end.

Reagan and Gorbachev meet at Geneva

November 21, 1985

Thatcher and Gorbachev meet at Chequers

December 16, 1985

Chernobyl Disaster

April 26 1986

Reyjavik Summit

October 11, 1986 - October 12, 1986

Glasnost and Perestroika

June, 1987

Gorbachev announces intention to follow:
-Glasnost: Transparency and freedom of speech
-Perestroika: Restructuring of government and economy

"Mr. Gorbachev, tear down this wall!"

June 12, 1987

Washington Summit

December 7, 1987 - December 9, 1987

Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty

December 8, 1987

Some claim this is the official end of the Cold War

Moscow Summit

May 29, 1988 - May 31, 1988

INF treaty ratified

May 29, 1988 - June 1, 1988

Gorbachev announces USSR will no longer militarily interfere in Eastern Europe

December 7, 1988

George Bush Sr.

1989 - 1993

Last Soviet troops leave Afghanistan

February 15, 1989

Agreed Poland can hold free elections

April 4, 1989

Poland Holds free elections

June, 1989

Anti-Communist protests in Tienanmen Square

June 4, 1989

Protests in China that were crushed by the government

Tiananmen Square Massacre

June 4, 1989

Solidarity trade union wins all available seats in Polish Parliament

June 4, 1989

Mazowiecki first non-Communist leader (Poland) in the Eastern Bloc

August, 1989

Hungary allows multi-party system

October 18, 1989

Hungary becomes a Republic

October 23, 1989

Fall of the Berlin Wall

November 9, 1989

Revolutions of Eastern Europe

November 9, 1989

Velvet Revolution

17 November 1989 - 29 December 1989

Peaceful protests in Czechoslovakia that overthrew Communist government

Malta Summit

December 2, 1989 - December 3, 1989

Meeting between Gorbachev and Bush- beginning of the end of the Cold War

Romanian Revolution

December 16 1989 - December 25 1989

Gorbachev

15 March 1990 - 25 December 1991

German Reunification

October 3, 1990

End of Warsaw Pact

July 1, 1991

START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty)

31 July 1991

Gorbachev Resigns

December 25, 1991

Bush announces the end of the Cold War

December 25, 1991

Fall of the Soviet Union

December 26, 1991