Chinese were forced to import opium
To cede the island of Hong Kong
And to open up five coastal cities to foreign traders
Japan transformed to a modern state
Russia, Austria, Germany - Against France and against issues in the Balkans
Without Russia due to issues at Berlin Congress
Germany, Russia, Austria - Russia joins because Germany makes concessions
Renewed in 1884 (3 year treaty)
Austria, Italy, Germany (frees up Austrian troops from Italy frontier in case of war with Russia)
Built by Russia - could send troops straight into China
Britain and France
Dreadnought battleship 1906
Japan recognized Britain's interest in China, and Britain accepted that Japan was interested in Korea
Fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
Improvement in Franco-British relations (end to hostility over Egypt)
Negotiated the end of the Russo-Japanese war
Britain, France, Russia
Possible because Russia was weakened by it's defeat in 1905 and was no longer a threat to Britain in China
-Russians gave up all claims to Afghanistan and recognized British interests in Tibet
-Peria was divided into zones of influence: North to Russia, neutral zone, South to England
-Both recognized Chinese sovereignty over Tibet
Sparked by Austrian annexation of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sparked by French troops in Morocco due to Fez riots. Germany wanted territorial compensation.
Balkan states attack Turkey. Austro-Russian tensions around Serbia. Crisis averted when Bulgaria fails to take Constantinople.
Turks gave up all territory except small zone around Dardanelles and Bosphorus
Albania became an independent state
- Satisfied Austria
Bulgaria attacked Serbia
Greece, Romania, and Turkey all supported Serbia
Bulgaria defeated in a month
Increased territories of Serbia, Greece and Romania
Excuse for Austria to eliminate Serbian threat to Bosnia and South slav territories
Gains German backing (blank cheque)
After Serbia rejects Austria's ultimatum. Germany backing Austria and Russia backing Serbia.
Didn’t want Austro-Hungarian domination of the Balkans or the destruction of Serbia
France couldn’t let the Germans defeat Russia because it would increase German power. The Dual Alliance also bound France to help Russia.
After Russia refuses to step down their mobilization.
After Germany attacked Belgium (Treaty of London 1839)
To capture German territory in Shantung and the German Pacific islands. Primary interest to strengthen hold on China.
Allies plan coordinated attack on Central Powers.
Germany attacks French military fortress in hopes of knocking out France and Britain.
Germans attack British naval fleet but fail to do significant damage.
Swept away Tsarist regime in Russia.
General Ludendorff fears that German lines will fall.
After unrestricted submarine warfare USA declared war on Germany
Wanted to pull Russia out of the war.
British tanks trample Hindenburg line - a pointer to the future of military technology.
Russia forced to give independence to Poland, the Baltic provinces, the Ukraine, Finland and the Caucasus.