Germany 1918-39

Events

Decreasing Value of Mark

July 1914 - November 1923

Kaiser Wilhelm abdicted.

November 9, 1918

Germany signed the armistice for the end of World War 1

November 11, 1918

December: Return of the Germany army to Berlin.

Approx. December 1, 1918

Hitler Joined the DAP

Approx. 1919

DAP founded

January 5, 1919

The German Worker Party was founded by Anton Drexler

Spartacist Uprising

January 6, 1919

The Spartacist Uprising was a communist uprising throughout Germany led by Rosa Luxemburg & Karl Liebnecht. It was dealt with after Ebert called in the Freikorps to put the revolt down successfully.

Elections for new constitution - Weimar Republic

February 1919

Six social democrats formed a council of Peoples Representatives and organized the elections

Treaty of Versailles signed

June 28, 1919

Weimar Constitution Passed

31st July 1919

DAP change to NSDAP

Feb 24 1920

The DAP changed its name to Nationalist Socialist German Workers Party: NSDAP or Nazi for short.

The Kapp Putsch

1 March 1920

The right wing Freikorps seized power in Berlin while the army and police stood by. The Weimar government called on workers to strike and many did, so the Kapp putsch failed.

Hilter becomes NSDAP's Fuhrer

JUL 28, 1921

Hitler was formally elected party chairman on 28 July 1921, with only one opposing vote. The committee was dissolved, and Hitler was granted nearly absolute powers as the party's sole leader.

SA formed

SEP 1, 1921

The Sturmabteilung functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party.Their main assignments were:
-Protecting Nazi rallies
-Disrupting the meetings of the opposing parties
-Intimidating Slavic and Romani citizens, unionists, and Jews.

Share prices crash in Wall Street

October 1922

Hyperinflation

1923

The government printed out money to pay for reparations, which resulted in money becoming worthless

French occupation on the Ruhr January 1923

Jan 1923

French troops occupied the Ruhr when Germany failed to pay reparations. German workers wrecked equipment, so the French couldn't make much money. The German economy was also wrecked

Introduction of Rentenmark

Nov 1923

Stresemann introduced new currency - Rentenmark. It stabilised the economy.

The Lean years

1924 - 1929

Hitler re-launched the Nazi party in 1924 and by 1929 it was very well organised but these were the difficult years for the party. The economy had improved - there was less unemployment. War hero Hindenberg was President of the republic which made it more popular and therefore the Nazis lost popularity as an extreme party.

Germany joins League of Nations

1925

Stresemann negotiated German entry to the League of Nations. This meant that Germany was recognized as a great power once again.

The SS are created

1925

The SS was created as an elite bodyguard for Nazi officials and the prime examples of the aryan race.

1928 elections

May 1928

the Nazi's won only 12 seats in this election

The Great Depression

October 1929 - 1933

Gustav Stresemann died

OCT 1, 1929

Black Thursday

October 24, 1929

Presidential election

march 1932

Hindenberg beats Hitler in the presidential election but Hitler gains support.

November elections 1932

november 1932

Centre party loses, even more, seats in another Reichstag election. The Nazis are still the largest party though they only win 196 seats this time.

Hitler becomes Chancellor

January 1933

The Reichstag fire

27 February 1933

The Reichstag building burned down. A Dutch communist Van Der Lubbe confessed. Thousands of communists were arrested. Hitler persuaded Hindenberg to declare a state of emergency and call an election. It is possible that Van Der Lubbe was framed and that the Nazis were behind it all.

March 1933 election

march 1933

The Nazis won 43.9% of the vote with 288 seats but still failed to win a majority in the Reichstag.

The Enabling act

23rd March 1933

Trade unions banned

2 May 1933

Political parties were banned

July 1933

The Night of the Long Knives

30 June 1934

Ernst Rohm challenged Hitler because he wanted the Nazis to be less about big business and more about the workers. The SS got rid of this opposition: they shot Rohm and about 400 other opponents.

Hindenberg dies

August 1934

President Hindenberg died in August 1934. Hitler declared himself Fuhrer, added all the powers of the president to those of the Chancellor and made every soilder swear allegence to him. Nazi propagande secured 90% of voters agreed that Hitler should be Fuhrer.