AP US History 1-11

Events

Ancestors of Native Americans cross the Bering Strait

18,000 B.C.

Nomads from Eurasia cross a land bridge created by the Ice Age that leads them to North America.

Vikings discover and settle Newfoundland

1000 AD

Viking explorers land in North America and declare it Newfoundland, but don't stay long due to difficulties with colonization.

Height of Mississippian culture at Cahokia

1100 AD

Urban settlements connected by a loose trading network, with Cahokia as a large religious hub in the center. They focused on agriculture, had no writing system, and constructed their buildings upon large pyramid shaped mounds.

Columbus lands in Bahamas

October 12, 1492

After sailing across the Atlantic Ocean, Columbus discovers the New World by landing in the Caribbean.

Sir Walter Raleigh founds Roanoke

1585

Raleigh sends a more diverse group, including many full families of settler, to Roanoke with the intention of founding a colony under the leadership of John White.

Edict of Nantes Passed

April 13, 1598

Granted Protestants substantial rights in France, which was mostly Catholic.

Champlain colonizes Quebec

July 3, 1608

Champlain explores Canada and the Great Lakes, publishing maps and accounts of his journeys, meeting with the natives, and eventually colonizing the city of Quebec.

John Rolfe perfects tobacco cultivation

1611

John Wolfe uses the better tasting Spanish tobacco seeds to commercially boost tobacco into a blooming industry.

First African slaves arrive in Jamestown

August 20, 1619

About 20 African slaves arrive in Jamestown from a Dutch warship, planting the seeds for slavery in the US.

Pilgrim’s land at Plymouth Rock

1620

Pilgrim's arrive at Plymouth Harbor on the Mayflower, and take their first steps on American soil to later colonize it.

Roger Williams convicted of heresy and founds Rhode Island

1635 - 1636

After being accused of spreading "dangerous" ideas, Williams was exiled from Massachusetts, and went on to create Rhode Island, a hub for free ideals.

Fundamental Orders drafted

January 14, 1639

Established Connecticut as an independent colony.

New England Confederation formed

May 19, 1643

The colonies of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven formed a union for "mutual safety and welfare", adopting a Constitution and becoming "The United Colonies of New England."

Half-Way Covenant founded

1662

Partial church membership created within the Congregational churches of colonial New England in 1662 by Reverend Solomon Stoddard, who felt that the people of the English colonies were drifting away from their original religious purpose.

Bacon's Rebellion

1676 - 1677

After a string of Native American's went unopposed, Virginian settlers lead by Nathaniel Bacon attacked Natives, torched the capital, and chased the governor away.

Pope's Rebellion

August 10, 1680 - August 21, 1680

An uprising by the indigenous Pueblo people attacking, killing, and driving out Spanish colonizers in Santa Fe.

Dominion of New England created

1686

A province created by combining the British colonies in North America which included Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Vermont, Maine, New Jersey, and New York.

King William’s War

1689 - 1697

Conflict between France and England for North America, mainly for control of the fur trade.

Salem Witch Trials

February 1692 - May 1693

After a group of young girls in Salem, Massachusetts claimed they were possessed by the devil, hysteria spread through the colonies. Nineteen people were hung or executed in other ways, and hundreds were accused.

Barbados Slave Code adopted

1696

The Colonies adopt the Barbados Slave Code as the foundation for their own slaves.

Queen Anne’s War

1702 - 1713

Yet another war for control of North America, fought by England against the French and Indians. Second of 4.

Zenger free press trial

November 17, 1734

A trial against John Zenger, a New York printer, who was being tried for publishing defamation against the king. He was found innocent, which set the ground rules for the freedom of press.

War of Jenkin’s Ear

1739 - 1748

War between Britain and Spain after British Merchant ship captain Robert Jenkins had his ear cut off by Spanish pirates, allowing Parliament to use this as an excuse to gain better access to the Caribbean.

King George’s War

1740 - 1748

Another conflict between French and Indians, and England, over North America.

Jonathan Edwards begins Great Awakening

July 1741

John Edwards begins the religious Great Awakening by giving powerful and emotional sermons that warn sinners of eternal doom unless they repent to the all forgiving god.

French and Indian War

1754 - 1763

War between the Colonies and the French, allied by the Native Americans.

Proclamation of 1763

October 7, 1763

Proclamation by King George following England's acquirement of French territory in NA, forbidding settlement west of the Appalachians.

Paxton Boys march on Philadelphia

January 1764

Vigilante group is formed to retaliate against Indians in the aftermath of the French and Indian War and Pontiac's Rebellion.

Sugar Act passed

April 5, 1764

Revenue raising passed by parliament that places a tax on importing molasses and sugar.

Stamp Act Congress convenes

October 1765

Congress held by Colonies to discuss protest against British taxation.

Townshend Acts passed

June 29, 1767

British imposed taxes that imposed taxes on glass, lead, paints, paper and tea imported into the colonies. Colonists viewed the taxes as an abuse of power.

Boston Massacre

March 5, 1770

While standing guard a group of Redcoats were attacked at their post by a mob of people who pelted them with snowballs, rocks, and sticks, until the Redcoat's retaliated by firing into the crowd, killing 3 people.

Boston Tea Party

December 16, 1773

A protest by colonists against the British imposed tea tax and attempts to convince American's to buy tea, where the Sons of Liberty dumped entire shipments of tea into the Boston harbor overnight.

Intolerable Acts passed

March 24, 1774

Harsh laws imposed by the British parliament in order to punish the Americans for the Boston Tea Party, among other grievances. Included the Quebec Act and Coercive Act.

Second Continental Congress meets

September 5, 1774 - October 26, 1774

The Second Continental Congress managed the Colonial war effort while moving slowly towards independence, then adopting the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776.

First Continental Congress meets

September 5 1774 - October 26 1774

Meeting of delegates from 12 or the 13 colonies in response to the Intolerable Acts.

Quakers found 1st anti-slavery society

April 14, 1775

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania becomes the first anti-slavery society, both abolishing slavery, and implementing schools and services for blacks.

Battle of Concord

April 19, 1775

Same as Battle of Lexington.

Battle of Lexington and Concord

April 19, 1775

Two fights that set off the American Revolution, after British troops marched from Boston to Concord with the intent to seize Colonial weaponry. Minutemen rushed to meet them, and eventually drove the British off, after separate battles in Lexington and Concord.

Battle of Bunker Hill

June 17, 1775

An early revolutionary war battle where the British defeated the Americans at Bunker Hill in Massachusetts, but despite this, suffered heavy losses, which inspired the Americans and gave them motivation to continue.

Declaration of Independence

July 4, 1776

Members of congress place their signatures on the Dec. of Independence, declaring the United States as independent from Britain.

Battle of Saratoga

September 19, 1777 - October 7, 1777

A large scale battle that the American's managed to win, which convinced the French that the American's were capable of winning the revolutionary war, prompting them to ally with the colonies.

Articles of Confederation adopted

November 15, 1777

The first Constitution of the United States, adopted by Congress.

Treaty of Paris

September 3, 1783

Same as "Peace of Paris."

Peace of Paris

September 3, 1783

A series of treaties signed in Paris by representatives of the US and Britain that effectively ended the revolutionary war.

Treaty of Fort Stanwix

October 22, 1784

Treaty signed by the Iroquois Confederacy to give up their land for colonist expansion.

Land Ordinance of 1785

May 20, 1785

A system that allowed settlers to purchase titles to farmland in the undeveloped west.

Shay’s Rebellion

1786

American farmers protested against enforcement of tax collections and judgments for debt, taking up arms and attempting to capture several military assets and harass merchants, until the rebellion was crushed by the military.

Constitutional Convention

May 25, 1787 - September 17, 1787

A convention intended to revise the Articles of Confederation, with the intention being to replace the system entirely instead of improving upon the Articles.

Northwest Ordinance

July 13, 1787

An act of Congress that created the Northwest Territory, the first organized US territory.

Ratification of Constitution

June 21, 1788

It took 10 months for the first nine states to approve the Constitution, at which point it became ratified.

Federalist Party formed

1789

The Federalist Party was the first American political party, spear headed by people like Alexander Hamilton. It lasted from the 1790s to 1816, and its remnants lasted into the 1820s.

Judiciary Act of 1789

September 24, 1789

Established the federal judiciary of the United States.

Whiskey Rebellion

1791 - 1794

A protest by moonshiners against taxes placed upon whiskey by the federal government.

Bill of Rights adopted

December 15, 1791

The Bill of Rights were imposed to protect the fundamental rights of Americans after certain groups protesting the Constitution complained it didn't protect individual rights enough.

Democratic-Republican Party formed

1792

Madison and Jefferson form the Democratic-Republican party to oppose the Federalist party run by Hamilton.

Neutrality Proclamation

April 22, 1793 - December 1793

An announcement by George Washington declaring the nation neutral against the French and British war.

XYZ Affair

1797 - 1798

During a French and English conflict, America remained neutral. France grew angry over Jay's Treaty, believing it violated French and American relations, and started seizing American ships. When Americans wanted to work out differences, delegates were sent to France to oversee a meeting with the King, but were met by 3 agents who demanded a bribe from them. The agents would be known as X, Y, and Z.

Alien and Sedition Acts passed

1798

The alien and sedition acts were passed in preparation for a war with France. The Naturalization Act increased the requirement for American citizenship from five to fourteen years, required aliens to declare their intent to acquire citizenship five years before it could be granted, and rendered people from enemy nations ineligible for naturalization. The Sedition Act banned the publishing of slandering writings against the government.

Judiciary Act of 1801

February 13, 1801

Reorganized the federal judiciary and established the first circuit judgeships in the country.

Marbury v. Madison

February 24, 1803

An important judicial case that formed the foundation of judicial review. Announced that a court can ignore an act of Congress if it's inconsistent with the Constitution.

Lewis and Clark Expedition

May 14, 1804 - September 23, 1806

Two explorers sent by Jefferson to document, explore, and chart land acquired in the Louisiana Purchase.

Embargo Act passed

December 22, 1807

The Embargo Act was a law passed by Congress and signed by Jefferson on December 22, 1807. It prohibited American ships from trading in all foreign ports.

Non-Intercourse Act passed

March 1, 1809

Jefferson, after closing all American exports, declares them open again, so long as French and British ports are excluded.

Battle of Tippecanoe

November 7, 1811

A battle fought by US forces lead by Major General William Henry Harrison against the Shawnee Indians, to destroy the Native American alliance their chief was promoting.

Battle of Horseshoe Bend

March 27, 1814

A battle between American forces and Indian ally forces lead by Andrew Jackson, and the Creek tribe, who opposed American expansion.