Early Modern Era (1450-1750)


Ottoman Empire

1300 - 1923

The Ottoman Empire founded in 1922 in northwestern Anatolia by Osman I. It was known as historically known as the Turkish Empire and was also considered an era, the Ottoman Era.

The Aztec

1300 - 1521

The Aztec was a Mesoamerican culture of people in ethnic groups of central Mexico from 14th to 16th centuries. It was also known as the Mexica culture.

The Ming Dynasty

1368 - 1644

Known as the "ruling dynasty of China," the Ming Dynasty incorporated several religions such as Buddhism, Taoism, Islam, Confucianism, and more. Another term for it was "The Empire of Great Ming."

The Inca Empire

1438 - 1532

Known as probably the largest empire in the world in early 16th century, the Incas incorporated a large portion of western South America. They were especially memorable for their monumental architecture and extensive trade network, even thought they lacked an essential writing system.

Atlantic Slave Trade

1444 - 1807

This was a means of transportation for slave traders of enslaved African American people from Africa to the Americas. In the 16th century, the Portuguese were first to take part in the Atlantic slave trade.

The Italian Renaissance

1450 - 1550

This was known as the period of great cultural achievement in many areas such as, music, art, etc. This was a great time where a lot of incredibly famous art pieces were created, like the Mona Lisa made by Leonardo da Vinci or the Creation of Adam by Michelangelo.

Age of Exploration

1453 - 1600

A period where European ships traveled around the world to search for new trading routes, from early 15th century to early 17th century. This way of explorations allowed several advantages. it led to a rise of global trade in Europe. This was also known as the Age of Discovery.

Fall of Constantinople


The is when the Ottoman Empire invaded the Byzantine Empire. Since Constantinople was the capital of the Byzantine, Constantinople started to decline.

Christopher Columbus arrives in the Americas


After trying to prove to the people that the Earth is more circular than flat, Christopher Columbus set on an expedition and made it to the Americas, thinking it was India

The Columbian Exchange

1492 - 1600

The term to describe the interchange of interchange of animals, diseases, and more between the Old World and the Americas after Columbus' arrival in 1492. The Columbian Exchange led to a more advanced world known as the "New World."

Treaty of Tordesillas

June 7, 1494

After the "New World" was named, this treaty was made for boundaries for rights of possession in the New World.

Vasco da Gama begins his voyage


Vasco da Gama was a Portuguese explorer that was the first European to reach India by sea, before Columbus. This is when he started his memorable expedition and journey.

The Portuguese reach India


This was the time the Portuguese, that were thriving, reached India.

The Triangular Slave Trade

1500 - 1800

The transatlantic slave trade that carried slaves, cash crops, and manufactured goods in West Africa. It operated from the late 16th to the early 19th centuries

Era of Absolutism

1500 - 1750

This is the period where rulers throughout Europe, like Louis XIV of France, had absolute control over their nations. This absolute monarchy allowed monarchs to rule freely without laws or legal differences. Many civilians, and rulers for that fact, took the concept into question.

Safavid Empire is founded


This empire was considered as the beginning of modern Iranian history. The people there spoke Persian and the most popular religion was Islam.

The Protestant Reformation

1517 - 1648

The Protestant Reformation was a schism against the Roman Catholic Church initiated by the 95 Theses' written by Martin Luther about the church's wrongdoings, such as including the concept of indulgences. Luther wasn't aware that this piece of writing would make such a big difference as much as it did. His views about indulgences were similar to others and started the schism.

Mughal Empire


Babur begun the Mughal Empire in India at this time. He was the emperor from 1526- 1530.

Start of the Anglican Church begun by Henry VIII


Also known as the "Church of England," this church was begun by Henry VIII around this time. It had 85 million members and was the fourth largest Christian churches in the world, first being the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodoxy.

The Scientific Revolution

1550 - 1700

An era used by historians to describe the emergence of modern science and discoveries in other fields such as astronomy, physics, mathematics, etc. This much knowledge has never been accumulated in such short time, making this era extremely significant.

Christianity was banned in Japan


Christianity was a minority religion in Japan. It only covered around 1% of the population. It was a=banned during this time completely due to the missionaries.

Qing Dynasty

1644 - 1912

The Qing Dynasty was the last imperial dynasty of China which was established in 1636 and ruled from 1644-1912. It was the fourth largest empire.

The Enlightenment

1680 - 1800

Known as the "Century of Philosophy," the Enlightenment was a period of intellectual innovations and introduced the idea of humanism. This era was also known as the "Age of Reason." This was because this time period included a variety of ideas that centered and were made on reason as the main source of authority. It started the year that Louis XIV died.