Ch 3-5, 6-10 APUSH

Main

Whiskey Rebellion

1794

farmers in W penn. stopped paying whiskey tax and terriozed tax collectors
• but congress didn’t let penn deal w it and sent out an army to surpress and it worked
federal gov got support from whiskey rebels w intimidation and got loyalties from settlers by accepting territories as states

Jay's Treaty

1794

• Had to get compensation for recent brit assaults on am shipping and to demand withdrawal of brit forces from frotneir and negotiate a new commercial treaty
o wasn’t successful in getting goals but settled conflict w brit and prevented war and est american soverignty in west
o est a good commerical relationaship w engl
o opponents
• all republicans and some federalists
• encouraged by french
• wanted to stop it in the senate
• but it was ratified
o raised fears in spain that brit and am would band together and challenge spain

Pinckney's Treaty

1795

• Thomas Pickney went to spain as a negociator
• Got everything the US wanted from spain
o recognized right of am to go to Mississippi and give goods at New Orleans and remake northern border of florida and let spanish authorities to prevent indians in florida from hving raids

Alien & Sedition Acts

1798

Alien Act
• Made it harder for foreigners to b am citizens
• Gave more power to pres to deal w aliens
• Helped discourage immigration and foreigners to leave
Sedition Acts
• Let gov prosecute ppl engaged in sedition against gov
o Made it possible fo federal gov to put down any opposition
o Republcican opportunity to find ways to put down feder.
o Arrested republican ppl who insulted fed.
Adams signed laws and cautiously enforced
Republican wanted to reverse alien and sedition acts

XYZ Affair

1798

• Adams made bipartisan commission w
o Charles pinckney, john marshall, and elbridge gerry
o To negotiate w france
o Prince Talleyrand (french foreign minister) wanted a loan and a bribe
• Adams gave report of what happened to congress
• Spread anti french feelings
o And support for federalists

Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions

1798

o Written by jeferson in 1798-1799
o Used john locke
o Fedral gov only had some powers and if it did things outside of those powers, states could “nullify” the laws
o Didn’t hv wide support
o Inc dispute w federalists on a national crises

Conflict with Barbary Pirates

1801 - 1805

• Northern af coast
• Barbary states (morocco, algiers, tunis, tripoli) wanted protection money from all nations whose ships sailed in the med
o Aka give us money and we wont attack your ships in the med.
• 1780s and 1790s-US did this but now jeff doesn’t like
• so, stopped paying
• so Tripoli leader pretty much declared war
• jeff built up am fleet
• then in 1805-reached an agreement w the pasha (leader) and am didn’t hv to pay anymore but had to pay a very large ransom for the am captured prisoners they had.

Lewis and Clark

1803 - September 1806

Embargo

1807 - 1809

• Wanted to keep US from going to war, so Congress put embargo on all trade and foregin ports
o Which turned into depression, ruined american econ
o Tjeff called it peaceable coercion

• Madison gets rid of embargo act

Tariff of 1816

1816

John C. Calhoun supported

Adams-Onis Treaty

1819

• spain gave all of florida to US
• and northenr terrritory in pacific northwet
• am gov gave up texas

Stephen Long Jouney

1819 - 1820

• led journey
• reort
o assessment of regions potentila for future settlement and developmetn
o made it seem like the “great american desert”

Panic of 1819

1819

• econ crisis
• all bc of EU agri disruption bc of napoelonic wars
• high foreign demand for am farm goods
• so super high prices for am farmesr
• bc of high prices for famr goods, land boom in western US
o bc of easy credit from the gov to settlers and speculators
o bc of speculative investments,
• land prices went up
bust
• bank started tightening credit in 1819
o called in loans, foreclosed mortgages
• state bank failures
• financial panic
• west blamed on national bank
• then six years of depression

Nullification

1820

Calhoun came up with the theory of nullification to make South Carolina less mad

Anti-masonry

1820

response to Society of Freemasons
o secret exclusive and undemocratic society
o jackson and van buren are part of it
• so said democrats were part of this group and bad
• whigs said they oppose aristocracy and exclusivity
• attacking democrats w democrats own issues

Party Idea is established

1820

Party was based on populace
genuine democracy

Monroe Doctrine

1823

• john quincy adams wrote
• said US couldn’t be colonized by other EU powers
• US would consider any foreign challenge to am nations as an unfriendly act
• fears
o Emerged directly out of amiercan relations w Eu in 1820s
• Were scared of spain’s EU allies would help spain retake old emprire
o Great brit was looking at cuba
• Adams Wanted to keep cuba in spanihs lands until am got them
• Effect
o Nationalism growing in 1820s
o Idea tht US=dominant power in west

Two party system is formed

1830

Whigs=antijackson; democrats=jackson supporters

Webster Hayne Debate

January 1830

• Senator from connectitcut said all land sales and surveys had to stop to slow slavery growth
Robert Y hayne-south carolina
• Said needed to go west to keep olitical and econ poewr
• Wanted to attract westerners
Daniel webster
• Massach. Senator
• Challenged haynes to a debate aabout national power vs states rights not really a debate about public lands and tariff
Pres jackson said needed to stick together, doesn’t like calhoun

tariff of 1833

1833

helped provide surplus of money

Nullification Crises

1833

South Carolina got mad with the tariffs of 1828 and 1832
So, legislature came up with two state conventions to nullify the tariffs.

Compromise to Nullification Crises

March 1, 1833

Henry clay came up with this compromise that lowered the tariff gradually

Panic of 1837

1837

• mostly bc of specie ciruclar (meant payment for public lands would only be accpeted in gold or silver)
• during first months of van buren pres
• many banks and business failed
• unemployment up
• worst depression
• bad politics for democrats
• causes
o also result of american policies
o england and W EU
• also had panics
• so Eu (esp brit) withdrew funds from am
• so made econ worse
o crop failures in am farms
• meant need more imports of food
• meant send money out
• van buren administration
o didn’t do much to fight depression
o bc didn’t like gov intervention
o borrowed money and only accpetig specie
• probs made it worse
o but did est 10 hour work week

Treaty of Wang Hya

1842

• US est diplomatic relations w china
• brit forced china to open to foreign trade
• so am sent Caleb Cushing to take part and got treaty
o same privlges as enlgish
o and extraterritoriality
• am accused of crimes in china could b tried in am

Presidents

Adams

1796 - 1801

Thomas Jefferson

1801 - 1809

Democratic-Republican
Louisiana purchase
• had a vision
o wanted agrarian econ (only half worked)
o wanted central gov to be limited power
o pro france
o agaisnt national debt and bank
o wanted edu for all white men
• weatlhy planter
• has slaves
• had public image of plain disdain for pretension
• tried to eliminate the aura of majesty of the pres
o walked like an ordinary citizen
o didn’t behave presidently
• good conversationalist, writer, super smart and creative
• shrewd and practical politician
• used powers of appointment to keep republicans in the gov
republicans thought gov was needlessly extravagant.
Limiting federal gov
• So in 1802, got congress to abolish internal taxes
o Left customs duties and western land sales as only source of revenue
• Secre of treasury reduced gov spending
• Jeff cut down national debt a lot
o And scaled down armed forces
• Thought could encourage civilian control of gov and large navy=overseas commerce
o But was not pacifist

James Madison

1809 - 1817

Democratic-Republican
War of 1812

James Monroe

1817 - 1825

Democratic-Republican
Era of Good Feelings
Monroe Doctrine
• was a soldier in the revolution
• a diploat
• and cabinet officer
• federalist decline so no opposition
• no imp internationla threats bc end of war of 1812
• strong believer in a time in which no more partisan divisions
• so chose cabnet to reflect ^
o federalist john quincy adams
• was best to become pres
o john c calhoun secretary of war
o wanted to include south and north, east and west, federalist and republicans
• goodwill tour
o went on a tourn in the country
o no one else did after wash
o enthusiasitc ppl

John Quincy Adams

1825 - 1829

Democratic Republican
corrupt bargain
started out w political bitterness bc “corrupt bargain”
adams proposed nationalist program like clay’s american sys
• but jacksonions in congress blocked

Tariff of Abominations

1828

• adams supported new tariff on improted goods in 1828
o bc massach & rhode island demand tht brit put textiles in am market at low prices
• but had to accept duties on ther items bc wanted middle and western support
• ^ made new engl mad bc now had to weigh beneifts of this tariff and having to pay more for raw materials
• southerners mad

Andrew Jackson

1829 - 1837

Democratic
the common people

he relates to the common ppl
• entering democratic age
• elites=got worried
o scared that jackson would use his supporters to take over am
• henry clay was convinced that andjack would be a dangerous king
• fired many high level bureaucrats
• replacements=not the best ppl
o replacements bc would do what he said
o ppl thought he did it to turn the gov into a group of ppl that will do anything he says
appointed someone that was then in a sex scandal

case for jackson
• fought for the rights of the average white man
• efficient
• gave lands west to the white man by kicking natives out
• expanded requirements for voting, so more ppl could vote
• popular vote became more meaningful
• destruction of the bank
• changing supreme court
• used taney
o reduction in marshall’s nationalism
• nullification
o state could make a decision if it could help the common ppl
o jackson didn’t support nullification and sent troops to s carolina
o enforced the law
• john c calhoun=jackson’s vp
o calhoun didn’t like tariff of 28
o hurt s textile industry
case against jackson
• picks and chooses laws to enforce of the constitution
• illegal
• impeachable
o ex: indians
• so focused on the common white man support thing that ignored the indians
• ex: georgia
• bank
o econ collapsed and banking industry unstable after destruction
• panic of 1837 (specie circular)
o hurt trade
• spread suffrage but not to women or natives or slaves

• 2nd term=now wanted to destroy US bank
• first time congress censured the pres (a slap on the wrist)
o one short of impeachment
• got personal btwn biddle and jackson

Martin Van Buren

1837 - 1841

Democratic
had to clean up jackson's mess

• got voted bc of econ boom
o esp land business
• gov sold public land
o and got money from tariff of 1833
• so now had surplus of money
o reduced national debt
• got out and had extra
o didn’t want to reduce tariff
o distribution act
• so gave money to states to build things
 not loans
• helped econ boom more
• webster bought much land

John Tyler

1841 - 1845

Whig
o former democrat
o wasn’t as strong of a whig as harrison
o wanted to abolish van buren indp treasury sys
• and raise tariff rates
o still had democratic ideals
• didn’t support clay in rechartering new US bank
• vetoed internal improvement bills of clays
• so whigs got out of the gov and democrats took their place
• tyler wanted to rejoin democrats
o new ideals
• aristocratic political ideals
• gov had to protect and expand slavery
• states rights=good

William Henry Harrison

1841

Whig
Died soon after he was elected

James K Polk

1845 - 1849

Zachary Taylor

1849 - 1850

Died in office

Millard Fillmore

1850 - 1853

Approved Compromise of 1850

Franklin Pierce

1853 - 1857

Supported Kansas Nebraska Act

James Buchanan

1857 - 1861

Abraham Lincoln

1861 - 1865

Elections

Election of 1796

1796

Wash didn’t like republicans
• Didn’t like complications in nation
• And was against republicans working w french
Jefferson was candidate of republicans in 1796
Adams was nominee for federalists
Federalists were dominant party but didn’t hv wash
• Didn’t like adams and liked pinckney more
• So some didn’t vote for adams
• But adams still won and jefferson became VP
Adams was leader of a diveded party
• Had republican opposition
Adams didn’t hv many skills as a politicion
• Intimidating

Election of 1800

1800

federalists said
• something like the french rev would happen if jeff was pres
republicans said
• adams would b like a king and impose slavery on ppl
New York was the deciding factor
• Aaron Burr had organized rev veterens to support republ
• So jeff won NY
Now voting and tried to get it so there wouldn’t b a tie btwn Jefferson and Aaron Burr (republican vp candidate)
• But didn’t work out and ended up w a tie
• So house of rep had to choose btwn the two
Federalist Congress had to decide
• Tried to save election for their own party
• Others wanted to hv a deal w Burr
• But Burr wasn’t reliable so
TJEff won

Election of 1804

1804

Jeffdawg is reelected for pres

Election of 1810

1810

got “war hawks”
o ppl who anted war
• nationalists
• and territorial expansion
• defense of reublican values
o henry clay and john c calhoun
clay became speaker of the house in 1811
calhoun-committee on foreign affairs
both wanted conquest of canda
madison wanted peace
• but didn’t want to lose trade

Election of 1820

1820

monroe reelected and federalist party dies

Election of 1825

1825

first political campaigning because all white males were able to vote
new idea=they choose pres

• Henry clay-finsihed last
Thought andjack was unfit so supported john quincy adams
Got adams to win
adams made henry clay secretary

jacksonians thought it was a conspiracy

jackson's campaign
promote how everyone can vote for the president
common people
adam's campaign
reveals rachel's adultery

Election of 1828

1828

national republicans
• adam supporters
• liked econ nationalism
• got support from remaining federalists
dmeocratic repulbicans
• jackson supporters
• didn’t like elite and wanted more opporutnity
• got support form ppl who didn’t like econ aristocracy
campaigning
• became personal
o jacksonians accused adams of using public funds to buy gambling things and wasted
o adams ppl said jackson was a murderer and distributed a “coffin handbill”
• list of soldiers jackson shot in cold blood
• and called wife bigamist
jackson victory
• sectional vicotyr
o adams got new engl and mid atlantic
• forces of privilege were out of wash
• democracy won
• liberty would come to the ppl and econ
• new age—called “age of the common man”

Election of 1832

1832

campaign decided bank issue
 Clay ran
• But bank support ppl couldn’t get him to win
 Jackson and van buren won

jackson and van buren
o represented themselves as people you could rely on
• desire to use the media to communicate w american ppl
• jackson reputation as a military hero

Election of 1836

1836

• democrats=Martin Van Buren (chosen by andjack)
• whigs=couldn’t pick one so had 3
webster=new england
hugh lawson white=south
william henry harrison=middle states and west
o thought would get rid of the majority and make the house of reps decide (which whigs would win)
• but van buren won

Election of 1840

1840

• Whigs realized needed one candidate
So had nominating convention in dec 1839
Chose william henry harrison for pres
John tyler for vp
• Democrats nominated van buren

• Had new popular penny press
o So spread news of candidates to more ppl
o Est idea of party competition
o Now can spread ideas through a newspaper that everyone can afford
• And easier to transport and make paper
o So now newspapers can be sold everywhere
o And a rising litarcy rate
o Supports jacksonian ideals
• Speaks for the common ppl

• Whigs
o before
• Represented more elite
• Helped business
o Now
• Party of the common ppl
o Democrats-same ^
• Now what mattered was how to win votes
o Whigs
• Made william henry harrison
 Simple man, loved log cabins
• Made van buren
 Aristocrat
o Democrats couldn’t defend themselves so
• Harrison won

Election of 1844

1844

Whigs lost

1844 election

1844 - 1845

Whig Henry Clay and the Democrat/former president Martin Van Buren. Clay chosen, but many Southern democrats supported TX annexation, chose stronger support James K. Polk

Polk able to win b/c wished to occupy Oregon and annex TX, thereby appealing to both northern and southern expansionists

Outgoing Pres John Tyler saw election as mandate for annexing TX, did so in 1845.

1848 election

1848

Polk didn’t run again. Dem candidate Lewis Cass, Whig General Zachary Taylor. Slavery opponents formed “Free-Soil” Party w/ Van Buren for pres. Showed inability of existing parties to contain slavery passions

1852 Election

1852

1852 pres election candidates very sectional. Dem Franklin Pierce, Whig Gen Winfield Scott, Free-Soil John Hale. Whigs suffered from massive defection from antislavery members, Democrats won

Pres Pierce tried to ignore divisive issues, but N opposition to Fugitive Slave Act after 1850 as mobs prevented slave catchers in cities. S angered, alarmed

1856 Election

1856

In 1856 pres election Dems wanted candidate unassociated w/ “Bleeding Kansas” so chose James Buchanan, Repubs chose John Fremont (platform against Kansas-Nebraska Act and of Whiggish internal improvements reflecting N economic aspirations), Know-Nothings chose Millard Fillmore

Buchanan won, but proved indecisive at critical moment in history. After taking office financial panic + depression hit country

In N Repubs strengthened b/c manufacturers, workers, farmers joined--depression seen as result of unsound policies of southern Dem administrations

1860 Election

1860

In Pres election of 1860 Dems torn btwn southerners (who demanded strong endorsement of slavery) & westerners (who supported popular sovereignty)

After popular sovereignty endorsed by convention southern states walked out, eventually nominated John Breckinridge of KY, rest chose Stephen Douglas

Still others formed Constitutional Union Party w/ John Bell as candidate- endorsed Union but remained silent regarding slavery

Republicans tried to broaden appeal to earn majority in North who feared S blocking its economic interests. Platform endorsed high tariff, internal improvements, homestead bill, Pacific railroad, popular sovereignty but Congress nor territory legislatures could legalize slavery in territories

Repubs chose Abraham Lincoln as nominee b/c moderate positions on slavery, relative obscurity, and western origins to attract votes from region

Lincoln won presidency w/ majority of electoral votes but only 2/5 of popular vote but failed to win maj in Congress

Election of Lincoln final signal for many southerners that their position in Union hopeless, within weeks process of disunion began

Native Americans

Battle of Fallen Timbers

1794

o general anthony wayne led 4000 soldiers into ohio valley
o 1794
o defeated indinas
• year later, miami signed Treaty of Grenville and gave new lands to US
o for acknowledgement of their claim to territory they had
o so indian lands can be ceded only by tribes
o small protection

Tecumseh establishes tribal confederacy

1809

• Two native am leaders tht helped inspire religious revival in the tribes
• Surge in pro native values
• The prophet recovered alcoholic and talked about the evils of the white culture
• Believed in collaborative military and political efforts among the tribes instead of separate tribes fighting
o Tecumseh wanted to unite indians of south and north missip.

Battle of Tippecanoe

1811

-tescumseh went to southern tribes to join alliance
• harrison provoked a battle there
o burned town drove indians out
• effect
o disillusioned his followers
o confederacy in disarray
• but still had some followers
harrison thought only one way to make west safe for ameircans
• get brit out of canda and get that land for US

First Seminole War

1818

• and jack commanded
o needed to stop raids on american territory by seminole indians
• so invaded florida, got spanish forts
• adams wanted gov to assume responsibklity for it
o said US had right under international law to defend themselves agaisnt threats from across the border
• showed how easily US could take florida

Missouri Compromise

1820

states=always admitted in pairs
• so one slave, one non slave
missouri wanted to get into union
• slavery was est
tallmadge admendment
• james tallmadge jr of new york wanted to prohibit slave introduction
o so could have gradual emancipation
if missouri admited as free state, would upste balance and more north than south
maine now watned to get into union too
• free state
henry clay told norther membrs if they blocked missouri from entering union as a slave state, southerners could block maine as a free state
senate said
• combine maine and missouri into a single bill
• maine-free state
• missouri-slave state
thomas admendment
• senator jesse b thomas of illinois
• admdnemdment not letting in slavery in the rest of the louisinana purchase territor norht of missouri
• congress adopted

Johnson v Mcintosh

1823

• leader of illinois and pinakeshaw tribes sold parcels of their land to white settlers but then later signed a treaty w federal gov giving land to US
• so gov then started giving new white settlers land
• marshall court had to determine who had precedene
o said US more
o said tribes had right to tribal lands
• that went above all am law
o indiv ppl couldn’t buy land from tribes
• only could buy from federal gov

Five Civilized Tribes

1830

Still had tribes in the south
• Had est settled agri societies and successful econ
Stable and sophisticated culture
Had formal consititon
And indp cherokee nation
• Some whites said tribes should keep lands bc were civilized
Gave up traditional ways

Removal Act of 1830

1830

Congress passed tht gave money to states to neogciate relocating tribes
• Pres even sent ppl to negociate
• So tribes had pressure from state and federal gov

The Black Hawk War

1831 - 1832

• odl northwest
• last time to get rid of natives 1831-1832
• white settlers in illinois vs Sauk and Fox indians under Black Hawk
• had early treaty tht gave illonios tribal lands (sauk and fox lands) to US but not legit bc rival tribe signed it
• so reoccupied land
• illonios state militia forced them out
wanted to exterminate and attacked even when they surrendered
• so fox and sauk retreated across miss
• white troops followed and killed them

Cherokee nation vs Georgia/Worcester vs Georgia

1831

• Jackson never liked natives
• Cief justice announced decision but was never enforced

Worcester v Georgia

1832

• court didn’t let gerogia make laws that tried to regulate access by US citizens into cherokee coutnry
o only fed gov could do it
• marshall made federal gov over states and tribes
o expanded rights of tribes to be free from state authroity

Seminole War

1835 - 1842

seminoles in florida
• resited pressures to relocate
• agreed to treaty to cede lands and to move
but a substantial minority under chief Osceola didn’t move and had uprising
• defend lands
o jackson sent troops
o semnole had help of af am and did guerilla warfare
o jackson wanted to exterminate all troops
o but still had natives in florida
o 1842-gov abondoned war

Cherokee Removal treaty

1835

fed gov got treaty from cherokees
• cherokee wasn’t represented
• gave land to georgia and were mvoed to reservation
• cherokees didn’t see this as legit so didn’t leave
• but then forced to

Indian Intercourse Act of 1834

1838 - 1839

All five civilized tribes were relocated
• indian territory was safely far away
• had land whites didn’t want
• eastern edge of land unfit for habitation
• so less chance of whites giong there at all

Trail of Tears

1838

• cherokees
• n carolina had small reservation
• natives had to make long trek to “indian territory”
• many died before or when they got there
• new reservations were unfamiliar

Bank

First US bank

1791 - 1811

• State banks gave out lots of bank notes so value=reputation of bank
• So had lots of different values
• And counterfeiting easy

o Hq in philly
o Branched in other cities
o Super powerful
o Federal gov had funds there
o Did general banking
o Issued bank notes
Dependable medium of exchange
o Had restrainting effect on less well managed state banks

Second Bank

1816 - 1836

• more captial than first
• could dominate atate banks
almost exact same as first bank

Nicholas Biddle

1823

began President of the bank

Attempt to Renew Bank

1832

submitted renwal of bank to congress
• Jackson vetoed, congress passed
• Congress couldn’t override veto

Recession

1833

• When pres transferred funds directly from US Bank, biddle called in loans and raised interest rates
• So US bank went into recession and biddle thought small recession would persuade congress to recharter the bank

witner of 1833-1834
• Ppl began to blame jackson for this
 And wanted ppl to recharter bank
• Jacksonians blamed recession on biddle and didn’t do anything
• Biddle got lots of credit and allies in buisiness community thought he was threatening their own interests
• Merchants protested
• So biddle gave credit back
 Lost chances on saving the bank

Independent Treasury

1840

• Bc didn’t hv US bank
• Gov put funds in indp treasury in wash and in subtreasuries in other cities

Supreme Court

Judiciary Act of 1801

1801

• Passed by lame duck Congress
• Reduced no of supreme court justiceships
• Inc number of federal judgeships
• Adams appointed fed to positions=midnight appointments
Republicans thought nation was now saved from tyranny

John Marshall

1801

o chief justice
• longest serving chief justice
o federalist
o was adams secretary of state
o adams made him chief justice beore leaving so now bascially in charge of court
o made the judicial branch equal to executive and legislative
o was in charge of marbury v madison
• strengthened judicial branch at the expense of executive and legislative branches
• advanced interests of propertied and commerical classes
establihed the federal gov over state in regulating econ
opene way for inc federal role in econ growth
prtected corporations and isntutions from local gov interference
super nationalistc
promote growth of strong unifeid econ developed US

Marbury v Madison

1803

o william marbury (one of midngiht appointments) was supposed to be justice of peace but never got papers to oficiate it
o so jeff became pres and james madison was supposed to transmit appointments
o madison didn’t want to do it so marbury went to the supreme court
o court said marbury had right to his job, but court couldn’t order madison to deliver ti
o courts reasoning
• judiciary act of 1789=let court make executive officials (like madison) to do things like deliver commisions
• but then court thought congress wasn’t right in doing that bc the constituiton didn’t say that
• so congress denying its own authrity made it bigger bc now it can nullify an act o congress

Fletcher v Peck

1810

• promoted commerce
• defended invilability of contracts
• land frauds in georgia
• marshall said land grant was a valid contract and couldn’t be repealed if coruption was ivnovled

McCulloch v Maryland

1819

• confirmed implied powers of congress by upholding constitutionality of US bank
o bank was sper unpopular in south and west
• some states tried to drive it out of business by prohibition or confiscatory taxes
o so raised questions: could congress charter a bank? Could individ states ban it or tax it?
o Daniel webster said
• yes congress could charter a bank bc under “necessary and proper” and states couldn’t tax

Dartmouth v Woodward

1819

• promoted commerce
• defended invilability of contracts
• republicans tried to revise dartmouth charter to covnert it into a state university
• marshall said the charter was a contract and protected
• so court ruled for dartmouth
• effect
 put imp resstrictions on ability of state gov to contorol corporations

Cohens v Virginia

1821

• justices said they could override decisions of state courts
• marshall affirmed the constituitonality of federal review of state court decisions
 states gave up some part of soverignty when ratifyied constition
 so courts must submit to federal jurisdiction
 or else federal gov wouldn’t hv power
 so basically states had to go under review of federal gov

Gibbons v Ogden

1824

• strengthened congress’ power to regulate interstate commerce
• state of ny indirectly gave aaron ogden business of carrying passengres across river
• but thomas gibbons had congress’ license
 competed w ogden
• gibbons then went to supremem court
• question: can congress’s power to give gibbon a license overpower state power to give ogden a monopoly
• marshall said power of congress could regulate interstate commerce
• so ogden’s claim was void

John Marshall died

1835

Roger B Taney

1835

new chief justice
o key to democracy was expansion of econ opporutnity and tht couldn’t work if older corporations maintained monopolies and don’t let newer companies compete

Charles River Bridge v Warren Bridge

1837

o 2 massach companies wanted to build a bridge across charles river
o once company had charter from state for a toll bridge and would monpolize bridge traffic
o second company wanted to make toll free bridge that would take away value from first company
o so first company said the second bridge had no right to break contracts
o taney supported the second company and gave them a second charter
o taney thoughts
said gov gaol was to promote general happiness
so a state had right to amend or abrogate a contract if such was necessary to advance well being of community
so, first company only benefited themselves
supported aspiring entrepenurs (jackson supported too)

War of 1812

Acquiring Spanish Florida

1810

• territory was threat to whites in south bc
o slaves went there to escape
o idnians raided from flordida
o had valuable rivers for transportation access
-am settlers in w florida got spanish fort Baton Rouge
o wanted fed gov to annex territory to US
o Pres Madison said yes
o and tried to get rest of florida
o became antoher motivation for war w brit bc spain was brit’s ally

Revolt of New England

1812 - 1815

• am military failures
• so got much opposition esp new england
new engl
• federalists even celebrated brit victories
daniel webster-leader of fedralist opposition in congress
fedralists-minortiy as a whole but majority in new engl
• some even wanted to sucede

Declare war against brit

june 18, 1812

britain able to start fighting

october 1812

bc napoleon power went down
so able to fight now that french were out of the way

British blockade on US

1813

Put-In-Bay

september 10, 1813

great lakes
• am got control of lake ontario
o so could raid capital of canda-york
• then got control of lake erie
o bc got Put-in-bay
o could invade canda through detroit

Battle of Thames

october 5, 1813

• william henry harrison won in a battle tht killed tecumseh
• weakened and disheartened the natives
super important turning point of the war

Brit burns down Washington

August 24, 1814

brit aramda went to washington
burned wash including white house

Fort McHenry & Francis Scott key

september 13, 1814

then went up to baltimore at fort mchenry
• but am prepared and got them to bombard from far away
francis scott key
• wrote star spangled banner on sept 13
• was watching fort mchenry bombardment

Hartford Convention

December 1814

• ppl who wanted secession
• liked nullification
• had 7 admendemnts to constitution
o to protect new engl form infuence of south and west
• thought gov would agree w them bc desperate
• but then jackson’s victory at new orleans came and they found out that peace had been est
• so didn’t work out and almost killed federalist party

Rush-Bagot agreement

1815

• commercial treaty
• let am trade w engl
• mutual disarmament in great lakes
• and canada-am boundry=longest unguarded frontier

Battle of New Orleans

January 8, 1815

• went to new orleans to advance up miss river
• andjack & army went
• brit retreated
• but already signed treaty beforehand, they just didn’t know

Treaty of Ghent

December 24, 1815

• am gave up demand for brit reununciation of impressment and cession of canada to US
• brit gave up creation of indian buffer state in NW

Almost War w Brit

Caroline Affair

1837

o eastern canda ppl launched rebellion against brit
o 1837-got US steamship Carolina to ship supplies from canada to NY
o brit got ship and burned and killed
o brit gov didn’t acknowledge or provide compensation
o NY ppl arrested canadian and charged him w murder
o Lord palmerston said if they didn’t release him, would cause war
o So webster wanted to release him but didn’t hv power,
• Only NY had poewr (state power)
• NY released him

Aroostook war

1838

o Boundary btwn canada and maine
o 1838-americans and canadians moved into aroostook river (disputed area)
o so fought

The Creole

1841

o Am ship
o slaves mutinied took possession of ship and went to bahamas
o brit said slaves free
o am mad

The Webster Ashburton Treaty

1842

-sent Lord Ashburton to negotiate maine boundry and other stuff
• came up w treaty
• est northern boundry btwn US and canada along maine
o ave US more land
o protected trade routes in canada and US
• ashburton resolved carolien and creole

Industrialization

Turnpike era

1790 - 1820

• relied on roads for internal transportation
• made toll road from philly to penn
• used crushed rock
• had to be profitable so contruction costs hv to be low and hv to have many ppl on it,
o so mainly goes short distances and in desnley populated areas
• federal gov eventually financed them in less populated areas bc companies didn’t want to make roads in unprofitable places

Eli Whitney's Cotton Gin

1793

• effects
o cotton growing spread more
o more demand for slavery, more est in south
o north
• entrepenuers developed am textile industry
• industry became more est
• more diff btwn north and south
 south-more agriculturaly, makes the raw materials, sends the materials north
 north-more industry, makes materials then sells them again to the south

American textile industry growth

1807 - 1815

Power Loom made

1813

Francis Cabot Lowell
founded first mill in am
• boston manufacturing company
o revolutionized am manufactering

Tariff of 1816

1816

• brit ships were unloading many manufactered goods priced below cost in am
• infant industries didn’t like
• made tariff law in 1816 tht limited competion from abroad
• objections
o agri ppl-bc had to pay higher prices for manufactered goods

river steamers

1816

river steamers went down miss river
o more cargo than other river transportaiton
• effect
o stimulated agri econ of west and south
o easier acess to makerts

o cost less
o let easter to send goods
bad things
• brit could cut off atlatntci shipping and coastal roads would hv lots of traffic
• ferries
o only way to cross rivers
• if shortage of goods normally traveled by sea, prices rose bc of hard to trnasport
• abscense of roads=hard for militia to get around

National road started

1818

• Albert gallatin used ohio funds to finance National Road from potomac r to ohioh r in 1807
o Began contruction in 1811
o Started 1818
• Super popular, heavy traffic
• High tolls but still made transportaiton costs lower
• Esp manufactures moved

Canals

1820

• expand water routes to the west
• super expensive so states had to pay
• New york-first to have it
o Took a while to see if it wa worth it
• canals help connect water connections btwn lake erie and ohio river
• effect
o inc white settlement in NW
o made westward journey easier and ship goods easier
• other cities
o couldn’t catch up w ny
o tried to connect west by canal but super hard bc of moutnains
o ex: boston, maryland , richmond
o canals couldn’t work as a route to the west in other cities

Business expansion

1820 - 1840

• bc of population growth and transporation revolution
• new generation of entrepeneurs
retail distribution of goods
• larg cities-stores specializing in speciic things
• some smaller towns-still have general stores
• less populous areas=business=barter
organization of business
• individ or limited partnerships operated most busineses
• dominating pp=great mercant capitalist
o sole ownership of enterprises
• some larger business=give up to corporation

Labor from native population

1820 - 1830

American Population Increase

1820 - 1840

• Ppl moving from countryside to NE and NW industrial cities
• More rapid growth than EU
• Bc
o Public health better
• No more epidemics
o High birth rate
• Bc kids more grow to adulthood
o Immigration
• Started inc in 1830s
• bc
 reduced transportation costs
 more econ opportunites
 bad econ conditions in EU
• EU
 irish ppl came
 went to NE
• internal immig
 agriculture in new engl less profitable
• so moved to agri in west
• or eastern cities
o NYC
• Good harbor
• Erie canal
• Liberal state laws

Steamboats

1820

• could carry lots of cargo and passengers
• opposition
o west farmers or eastern merchants didn’t like
o farmers would pay less to transport goods and eastern consumers pay less if could just ship directly instead of through rivers
o northwestern merchants could sell more stuff too

Small communities become major cities

1820 - 1840

Fur trade

1822

• fur trade and market econ
o expanded
o how mountain men got money
• some mountain men earned salary
• others were indp and got credit from companies
 so almost always in debt
 and econ bounded to companies
• some completely indp and depeneded on merchants from east
o relations
• got along w natves and mexicans
• but not always good
 jedediah s smith
• went into battles w mojaves and other trbies

Erie Canal

October 1825

o Went through hills and valleys
o Stone aqueducts
o 88 locks
o financial success
o route to the great lakes
o direct acess from ny to chicago and western markets
o ny as big as new orleans

B&O Railroad opens

1830

Competitive Textile Market

1830 - 1850

• hard to maintain high living standards and attractable working conditions
• wages went down hours went up conditions went down
boom and bust

Corporations

1830

• before, corporations gotcharters bc of special act of state legislature
• 1830s=states passed general incorporation laws
o so groups could get charters by paying a bit
• limited liability=indiv stockholders risked losing only value of their investment
o if corporation failed, not repsonsible for corporation losses
• more amounts of capital
o so more larger manufacturing and business enterprises

First national craft unions found

1830

Factory Girls Association

1834

• mill workers in lowell organized
• had strike
• both failed
• recession of 1837 destroyed it

National Trade Unions

1834

• didt work out at first
o had hostile laws and courts
o common law said it was illegal
o panic of 1837 weakened movement more
• bc of wide markets and interconnected econ, could make national unions

Factory System spreads

1840 - 1860

• ex: new engl textiel industry
o first use of new large machines driven by water power
• single roof
• value of manufactered goods equal to agri products
industrial northeast=made 2/3 of manufactered goods

northwest expansion

1840

• tried to go into larg areas
• 1850s=moved into prarie
o developed timber industry
o wheat was staple cop and corn potatoes imp

More geographic mobility

1840 - 1860

• less social conflict
• few urban workers could afford to move
• more common=movement from one town to another
• ppl who moved=victims of layoff
• not all the time led to improvement
• made effective organizaiton and protest hard

Immigration from abroad inc

1840 - 1850

• chicago, foreign born outnumbered native
• few immigrants went to south
• most came from engl, france, italy, esp ireland and
more immigration=more people to work in labor force
large and inexpenisve
less leverage than women
helped contstruct canals etc
• irish immigrants
bc no skills, native prejudice
super low wages and received intermittently
didn’t earn enough to support families
lived in shanties
working conditions
• immigrants helped worsen working conditions
• less social pressure on owners to hv good conditiosn
• not as bad as EU still
• dangerous
• 12-14 hours
• wages went down
started using piece wages
• wages on how much workers made
• speed up production

Improved farm tools and machines

1840

o 1840s=grain drills, mowers, etc
o cast iron plow
• john deere-1847 made facotry to manfuacture steel plows
o atumatic reaper
• grain production
• cyrus h mcCormick
• 1834=est factory
o thresher
• seperated grain from wheat stalks
• 1840
• manufactered in jerome I case factory

Commonwealth v hunt

1842

massach
o said unions were lawful and could strike
o other states agreed

Samuel F B Morse invents telegraph

1844

• helped conect north and south and north and
• low cost of constructing wire sys

Irish potato famine

1845

Steam Cylinder Rotary Press Invented

1846

Richard Hoe invents
print newspapers fast and cheap
• associated press
o make easier to spread news from out of town
• major metropliation newspapers appeared in arger cities of the ne
o concentrated on national and international events
• feed sectional discord
o most major newspapers and magazines in the north
o south feel more subjugated
• bc mainly local news and small budgets

Failed revolution in germany

1848

More successful labor unions

1850

Burst of railroads

1850

expansion of the rails connected all regions
• reached west of missi
cosolidation
• short lines into logner lines (trunk lines)
• diverted traffic away from main water routes
• weakened the connection btwn nw and south
money
• private investors borrowed money from local gov
• fed gov got helped w mone from public land grants
• stephan a douglas
o 1850
o persuaded congress to grant federal lands
o by 1860-congress gave 30 millions acres

Know Nothings

1852 - 1854

Political organization
called American Party
success in east
declined after 1854
against foreign people

Connected NE to NW with railroads

1853

four major railraod trunk lines crossed appalachian mountians

Transatlantic Telegraph Cable

1858

Most parts of the country is connected by the telegraph

1860

had line btwn san fran and ny

New sources of energy

1860

• coal replacing wood and water
• mined in pittsburgh
• possible to have mills away from runnning water
• industry expanded

Industrial and commercial area around lake erie flourished

1860

• increasing manufactering region in ohio river valley
• chicago
o national center o agri machinery and meatpacking industries

Population

1860

26% of population of free states were living in towns
• Percent higher in industrializing states of NE
population more than britain

Technological Innovations

1860

a lot of american inventors

French Relations

France Expands in America

1750

o bc of fur trade and French Jesuit missionaries and French farmers
o Controlled w fortreses, wide spread communities, missions, trading posts
• Ex: Fort Louisbourg and Quebec (center)
• Had farms in south like southern ones w creoles
 Ex: New Orleans

Fort Necessity

1754

Beginning of French and Indian War!
gov of Virginia sent militia force (under Wash) to ohio valley to challenge frence
o Built the fort near Fort Duquesne
o Tried to attack but didn’t work
o France attacked back and many died

French & Indian War

1754 - 1756

• local, American conflict, colonists handled themselves
• brit helped a little but little impace
o General Edward Braddock failed by trying to take over Fort Necessity again
• Local colonial soldiers
o Defended themselves against indian raids on west
• All tribes were w French
• Fort Duquesne=showed brit weak
• Many brit colonist fled to the east

• William Pitt
o Engl secretary of state
o Brought american war effort under brit control
o Appointed military commanders
o And gave orders to colonists
o Had no drafts so forcibly inlisted
• Called “impressment”
o Officers also took supplies from colonists
o And made colonists quarter troops
o Had friction btwn brit and colonitsts
o In 1758-relaxed many policies that americans disagreed w 
• Paid back colonits
• Gave control of military recruitment to colonial assemblies
• Sent over more troops to americas

• French outnumbered brit, so had a lead
• But then mid 1758, were seizing french strongholds
• Jeffrey Amherst and James Wolfe got Fort Louisbourg
• Siege of Quebec
o James Wolfe defetead them
o Begin of the end of the american phase of the war

• effects
o Expanded eng territory
o But brit had huge debt
o Also inc resentment of the americans from the brit
• Thought ameircans didn’t help at all
• American colonists were selling goods to french
o Forced americans to act together against a common enemy
o Imp social experience
o The colonitsts army was more communal isntead of hierarchical like the brit
o Iroquois confederacy relations w brit went away

Seven Year's War

1756

france and engl gov started

Peace of Paris

1763

o French ceded west indian islands and colonies in india to brit
o Gave canada and east of miss to engl
o And new orleans and west of miss to spain

Britain sent minster to US

1791

• bc madison and republicans were threatening to hv special trade rsitrictions on brit ships
• est legitimacy of US

Brit started taking am ships that traded with french

1794

• anti-brit feel got bigger
• gov general of canada gave warlike speech to indians to challenge US
• war would =no improts from engl, which was big $

Treaty of San Ildefonso

1800

• napoleon wanted to restore french power in america
• wanted lands west of the miss (spain owned)
o btwn french and span
o france got louisiana
• wanted it to be the heart of the french empire in am

Spanish shut down am access to Miss. River

1802

now jeff has a problem bc of ^
• if he tried to use force and change spanihs, could lead to war
• if didn’t listen to demands, could lose political support
so, got Robert Livingston to go and talk to french to buy new orleans

Louisiana Purchase

april 30, 1803

naps sold it bc
• US would form alliance w brit if france problems inc
• Already lost battle of getting US from the start bc
o Of yellow fever
o and expeidtionary force didn’t come
• so realized couldn’t secure an empire w these resoruces
livingston and james monroe went to paris
• didn’t even know if they should even buy all of louisisna bc wanst authroized to do it
• but went through anyways
signed agreement in april 30, 1803
• US had to pay $15 mill to france and give commerical privleges to them in new orleans and let louisiana area be states
Jeff was pleased that they got it but didn’t know if US could accept it bc of constuitiuion
• Advisors persuaded him to do it
1803-got it oficially
orgainized louisiana like northwest territory

Education

Almanacs Appeared

1638

• white males would get literacy
• helped create market for almanacs
o books were scarce and expensive
• normally owned bible
o most popular nonreligious literature
o 1638-39 appeared
o contained
• medical advice, humor, practical wisdom, astronomy, popular interests
• had almanac predictions
 predicted weather, crop yields
 were mostly wrong but ppl read them anyways
o by 1700s=many almanacs circulating
o were multilingual
o best known before revolution: Poor Richard’s Almanack by franklin
o use to promote scientific discoveries
o had popular humor
• mostly about political situations
• women literacy was less than male

Noah webster wrote spelling book

1783

• To encourage nationalistic culture, made “american Spelling book”
o Simplified americanized sys of spelling
o Best selling book

Increase private schools

1800

• no school was truly public
o even those est by state legislatures
• classes
o training in classics and thology
o clergy=only profession needed to have higher edu
o some made other classes
• law schools before 1800
• but most lawyers apprenticed to learn

No one had public school sys

1815

• Some states endorsed public edu but no one actually made schools
o Ex: massach, virginia

Private Secondary Schools

1815

o aristocratic (trained students to be elite)
o only male

Religion

The Great Awakening

1730 - 1750

Bc of declining piety and growing secularism in other regions and other faiths
Potential for everyone to start a new relationship w God
• Reflects how ppl want to break away from families and communities to start new life
• Appeal to women and later generations of settlers bc inherit less land
England ppl helped spread
• John and Charles Wesley-founder of Methodism
o Visited colonies
• George Whitefield =toured
• Jonathan Edwards=new engl Congregationalist
o Attacked new doctrines of easy salvation for all
o Preached anew traditional puritan ideas of absolute sovereignty of God, predestination, salvation by only God
Divided congregations btwn “new light” and “old light”
• Affected society outside of churches
• Some revivalists got communities to stop secular edu
• But others thought it was good and found schools

Articles of Confederation

1777

• Congress was central instiution of national authority
• Powers
o Authority to conduct wars
o Foreign relations
o Apporpriate borrow and issue money
• Could not
o Regulate trade
o Draft troops
o Levy taxes directly
• Had to go to state legislatures and usually refused
• No separate executives
o “president” was presiding officer at sessions of congress
• each state had one vote in congress
o 9 states had to approve admission of new state
o all 13 states had to approve an amendment to articles
• states claiming western lands wanted to keep but other states wanted them to be given to national gov
• small states wanted equal vote, large states wanted based on pop
• went to effect in 1781 lasted until 1789
• couldn’t work bc
o didn’t hv powers to deal w interstate issues
o couldn’t enforce its will ons states

Universalist Church

1779

James Murray founded church as separate denomination
in massach

Statue of Religious Liberty

1786

in virginia
• written by thomas jefferson
• wanted seperation of church and state

few americans a part of formal churches

1790

Cane Ridge

1801

kentucky
• Evangelical misniters made “camp meeting”
• Revival tht lasted long, many ppl came, was big
• Get more supporters
• Peter cartwritght-preacher tht traveled
• But sometimes effec
o Religious frenzy=convulsions

Second Great Awakening Starts

1801

Moves more towards relgion again
Conservative theologians of 1790s to fight relig rationalsim spread
• Encouraged churches to ^
New awakening spread esp in west
• Started in presbyterian in east collages
• Membership inc esp in baptists, presby, methodists
Message of second great awakening
• Idnv have to readmit God and Christ into daily lives
• Have to be actively piety
• Reject skeptical rationalism
• Didn’t resotre relig ideas of the past
• Thought God was active in ppls roles
• Men and women could bein diff protestnat churchs but still same christian faith
Effect
• Accelerated growth of diff sects and denominations
• Est order ans social stability in communities
Women
• Many women went to meetings
o Bc women more numeroius in certain regions bc men would move west
• Discovered foundation on which to build their lives
• Response to changing econ roles
o Bc more industrial work less home work
o And older women no more imp social work
• Turned towrds relig to help compensate for ^
• Women played imp role in church charity stuf
Af am
• Some areas, revivlas were open to everyone
• Black preachers emerged
• Racial unrest
o Out of meetings, Gabriel Prosser came up w plan in 1800 to attck richmond and slave rebellion
Native am
• Had own revivlas w tribal expeiriences
• Neolin
o Delaware prophen made widespread revival
o Combined christian imagery and idnian
o Had personal god tht was intimately involved w man
o Told indians to rebell to defend land
o Didn’t like trade or relationships w whites
o Helped inc indian war efforts
• Bc of dislocations and militar defeats bc of am rev, sense of crises created religious fervor and prophecy
o Presby and baptist missionaries did converions
o Handsome lake
• Seneca
• Wanted revival of traditional native ways
• No more white hobbies like drinking
• Didn’t lead to true restoration of iroquois culture
• Wanted men to not b hunters and b sedentar famriers
• Wanted women to be more domestic
more rural ppl

Revolution!

Albany Plan

1754

colonists didn’t want to cooperate even when there was a common threat (france)
• Conference of colonial leaders met in albany to negotiate a treaty w the iroquois
o Wanted to form a colonial federation for defense agaisnt indians
o “one general gov” for all colonies
• would control relations w idnians
• had president general (appointed and paid by king)
• legislature (a grand council) elected by colonial assemblies
o but would keep old constitutions
• wasn’t approved
• thought union was necessary but no one did it
• movement lead by Franklin to bring the colonies together

Proclamation of 1763

1763

o Didn’t let settlers go beyond appalachian
o Let london control westward movemnet isntead of colonists and gov
o Less conflicts w tribes
o Less ppl leaving coastal colonies (most imp for econ)
o And more land avaliable for england instead of colonists
o Native effects
• Tribes had to give more land to bit
• The Cherokee tried to stop encroachments
• But relations improved bc had indian superintendents
o But didn’t work, limited land only a little, ppl mostly ignored

Sugar Act

1764

o To eliminate illegal sugar trade btwn colonies and french and spanish
o Damaged market for sugar grown in colonies
o Est new vice-admiralty courts

Currency Act

1764

o Colonial assemblies to stop issuing paper money

Mutiny Act of 1765

1765

o Colonists had to help provision and maintain army
o Brit navy had to patrol american waters for smugglers
o Customs service was reorganized and enlarged
o Royal officials had to go to americas themselves instead of paying substitues
o colonial manufactering was restricted to not compete w brit

Stamp Act

1765

• Sugar act only affected new england merchants
• But this affected all
• Printers (most influenteial group in distributing info) had to do it
• However, economic cost wasn’t much, stamps werent expensive
• Before, Americans thought taxes on trade were to regulate commerce instead of raise money
o Thought sugar act too
• But this act was england attempt to raise revenue w/o consulting colonists

Committees of Correspondance

1772

• Samuel adams est
• Made possible contnuous cooperation among the colonies

Tea Act

1773

brit East India company was on bankruptcy
o so tried to save it by having tea act
o gave company right to export merchendise directly to colonies wihtout paying middlemen, so don’t have to pay normal customs duties
o wanted to undersell american merchants and monopolize colonial tea trade
o colonists angered bc
• merchants thought they would be replaced and bankrupted
• taxation w/o representation
o Lord north made tea act
o Thought colonists would like it bc reduced tea price
o Had boycott
• Imp bc involved all colonies and linked them together in mass protest
• More activities of colonial women
o opposition
• Wanted to prevent east india company from landing cargo in colonial ports
• Philidelphia and new york
 Determined colonists kept tea from leaving colony’s ships

Boston Tea Party

Dec 16, 1773

Coercive Acts

1774

• Only in massachusetts
• To punish boston tea party
• Closed down port
• Reduced colonial self gov
• Let royal officers be tried in other colonies or engl
• More quartering
• Consquences
 Other colonies helped out and supported
 Extended boycotts of brit goods to include tea

France Involvement

1774

• Had secret bargains, createion of secret trading firm and secert agents supplied amercians w supplies
• But was reluctant in diplomatic recognition

First Continental Congress

September, 1774

thought intolerable acts were too much so wanted to call a continental congress
• had delegates from all 13 colonies except for georgia
• first met in sept 1774 in Carpenter’s Hall in Philadelphia
• made 5 decisions
o 1. Rejected a plan (by Joseph Galloway of Penn) for a colonial union under british authority
o 2. Endorsed a statement of grievances that shows conflcits btwn delegets of moderates and extremists.
• Parliaments right to regulate colonial trade
• Wanted demand for repeal of all acts sicne 1763
o 3. Approved a series of resolutions that colonists should make military preparations for defense agaisnt brit
o 4. Agreed to nonimportation, nonexporatation, nonconsumption to stop all trade w brit and made a “continental association” to enforee
o 5. Agreed to meet in the spring aka a continuaing organziation

Lexington & Concord

April 18, 1775

Ppl have been gathering arms and ammunition for months
“minutemen” =to get ready to fight in less than a minute
congress got ready for defensive war so waited for brit to make fisrt move
Thomas Gage-commander of brit
• Knew about the military preparations
• Didn’t think army was big enough to fight
• Didn’t think americans would back down quickly
• Was ordered to arrest sam adams and john hancock
• But heard about minutemen storing supplies in concord so tried to surprise colonists and take supplies w/o fighting
• Went on april 18, 1775
• But paul revere and WILLIAM DAWES went out and announced the british were coming
• So minutement got prepared and waited for them
• Some died when encountered brit
• Americans already moved supplies when brit got to it
• On the way back to boston, farmers harassed brit and killed some
• Diff stories on who fired first
• Effect-(bc americans got to tell their version more)
o Rallied revolutionary thoughts
• Ppl didn’t realize Lexington and concord was first battle

Bunker Hill

june 17, 1775

• More loss on enemy side than american side

Iroquois Neutral

1776

But some wanted to involve
• Ex: joseph and Mary Brant
o Mohawk
o Popular (warrior and widow of brit superintendent of indians)
o Wanted to help brit and got Seneca and Cayuga to help
Created Divisions
• Only 3 of six nations supported brit
• Oneida and tuscarora supported am.
Confederacy Started to unravel

Mid-Atlantic Region

1776 - 1778

Second phase of the war
Brit were winning
War became a raditional & conventional
Americans were overmatched

Moore's Creek Bridge

February 17, 1776

• Patriots crushed loyalist uprising
N carolina
discouraged brit to invade south

Britain leaves Boston

march 17, 1776

brit thought boston wasnt best place to wage war
• center of anti brit
• tactically indefensible
• patriot already surrounded
• so, March 17, 1776,brit left boston for Halifax
• so americans got brits to leave in the first year

Stamp Act Repealed

March 18, 1776

• England backed down on stamp act
o Bc of econ pressure not bc of colonists defiance
o Many colonists stopped buying stamps and econ went down
• Marquis of Rockingham convinced king to kill stamp act

Hessians

December 25, 1776

• German mercenaries
• Stayed at trenton on delaware r
• Washington surprised on christmas night 1776
• Took trenton and princeton but didn’t work

Howe And Burgoyne Brit Plan

1777

• Wanted to split US
• plan
o Howe move north from nyc up hudson to albany
o John Burgoyne move south from canada to meet him and have two pronged attack
• Reality
o Howe abandoned plan and launched assault on philadelphia
• Wanted to discourage patriots, rally loyalists, end war
• So went north and occupied
o Washington then went to Valley Forge for the winter
o Burgoyne had to do it alone
• Sent Colonel Barry St. Leger to help
• Burgoyne got fort Ticonderoga and lots of supplies
• So Congress replaced General Schuyler w Horatio Gates
• But then burgoyne had two bad defeats (Oriskany, NY on aug 6 and Bennington, Vermont aug 16)
• so had no materials, all help cut off so went to Saratoga
• gates surrounded him and on oct 17, 1777 surrendered to americans
 super victory, major turning point
 bc now france allied w US
o ^ howe’s fault
• abandoned plan
• left burgoyne alone
• didn’t move in on final attack when continental army weak
• let wash retreat and regroup
• left amercan alone at valley forge
• maybe bc
 alcoholism
 secretly sympathetic to american cause
 romantic attachment
 didn’t realize it was a war
o congress had to move to York, Pennsy.

Final Phase: South

1778 - 1781

Brit gov not fully investe in the war
• So brti tried to get support of loyalists and undermine the revolution from w/in
• Thought south had most loyalists
South was where the most of the final stage of war
• So 1778-1781
• Fought battles in south
• But much more patriots than brit thought, as much as north
Loyalists in south wouldn’t help brit
• Bc patriots would get them
• And brit took their slaves to join them for liberty
Logistical problems
• Patriots could move wherever they wanted and blend in w civilians
• So brit had many disadvantages bc didn’t know the area

Saratoga

February 6, 1778

france recognized US as a nation
France involvment made war international conflict
• France, spain, netherlands started to help
• Gave them navy and expeditionary force

All states had constitutions

1780

Yorktown

1781

• G wash and jean baptiste de rochambeau (french ground troops) and francois joseph paul de grasse (french navy)
• Rochambeau from ny to join w lafayette in virginia
• Grasse went to chesapeake bay and york river
• Surrenedered on oct 17, 1781

Treaty of Paris

September 3, 1783

After cornwallis defeat, england didn’t want to continue war
Lord north resigned and lord shelburne in charge
Brit emissaries went to france to talk to american (ben frank, john adams, john jay)
Americans watned to cooperate w france with deals w engls
But france didn’t want to agree on anything until spain got gibraltar from brit
So americans went ahead secretly and signed a treaty w brit on nov 30, 1782

• Spain and france both agree to end hostilites
• Gave us indp
• And more land
• Fall of 1783, last of brit left

Postwar Depression

1784 - 1787

• Inc inadequate money supply
Confederation had huge debt
• Couldn’t pay it back
o Couldn’t tax
• Could only make requisitions of the states and only got 1/6 of the money
Watned to inc central gov and pay back
• Robert Morris, alexander hamilton, james madison made a “continetnal impost”
o 5% duty on imported goods to fund debt
o thought would give too much financial power to morris
o so wasn’t approved in 1781 and 1783
states ahd war debts
• so relied on increased taxation
• but poor farmers already were in debt and had new taxes so unfair, even tyrannical
• wanted state gov to give out paper money so it would b easier for them

Land Ordinance of 1784

1784

• By thomas jefferson
• Divided west lands into 10 self governing districts
• Could petition to congress for statehood when pop was equal to smallest existing state
• Tried to avoid making second classes
• Had sys of surveying and selling western lands
o N of ohio R turned into rectangular townships
• Divided into 36 sections
• And each township 4 sections was for the US
o Sale of one section was to support public school
o Sectiosn were sold at auctions

Land Ordinance of 1785

1785

• Est of pattern to divide land up
• Before, had sys of using natural boundries, informal claims of landlords, random allocaions of aces to be determined by indiv landowners
• But wanted to be more precise so in 1785 in NW territory, est a grid
• Became the norm for land west of appalachians
• Model for organization of towns and cities

Shay's Rebellion

1786

• esp high debt in New england, connecticut valley, massch
• thought was taxing them for more money to wealthy ppl
• 1780s, had mobs of farmers rioting
• many were revolutionary veterans
• Daniel Shays led
• Had demands
o Paper money
o Tax relief
o Moratorium on debts
o Relocation of captial from boston to interior
o Abolition of imprisonment for debt
• During summer 1786,
o Tried to prevent collection of debt and forced courts from sitting and sheriffs from selling confiscated property
o Samual adams called them rebels and traitors
• During winter
o Rebels went to springield and wanted to seize weapons
o Army of militamen confronted them from boston
o Jan 1787-shays band dispersed
• results
o Was a failure
o Gave some concessions to famrers
o Massach gave protestors tax relief and postponement of debt payments
o Added urgency to the movemnt to make a new national constitution.

Northwest Ordinance of 1787

1787

Ordinances more favorable to land speculators not ordinary settlers bc couldn’t afford
So sold best land to ohio and scioto land companies before availiable to anyone
Ppl got mad, so
• Deleted 10 districts tht was est in 1784 and made one giant northwest territory out of land n of ohio
• Could eventually be diveded into 3 and 5 territories
• Had freedom of religion and right to trail and no slavery

Ch 11 &12

Shakers spread

1774 - 1840

brought to america by mother ann lee
the height was in 1840
super good architecture
basically one big happy family
simple
inventors
• built all their own furniture
some were orphans and left there in the community
based on religious reveltion
relig freedom not possible at any other time or any other place
super connected to God

Gabriel Prosser Slave Rebellion

1800

Cannot import any more slaves

1808

so slaves are more of an investment now
have to treat slaves well to maximize profit

American Colonization Society

1816

• Abolitionist Movement
o 1816→american colonization society created
• advocated gradual, voluntary emancipation
• society forms during monroe
• advocated returning slaves to af
• wanted to give emancipated slaves the opporutnity to emigrate to africa
• est Liberia

First penitentiary founded

1821

Denmark Vesey Slave Rebellion

1822

contributes to the white myth of what is possible

Mormans

1823 - 1844

joseph smith
state sponsored religious terror

Benevolent Empire

1825 - 1846

• Movement ot be more chartiable
• Influenced by potential of idnvid
• New instituion to help hanidcapped
• Ex: perkins school for the blind
• Even hadnicaped could help disscover inner strength and wisdom

Second Great Awakenng

1826 - 1831

Charles Finney led
gave women idea of equality
revivals=god is good and nice and loving
individ people have the capability to be saved
basically events to convert many ppl
affects social reform movements

Transcedntalism

1830 - 1850

• Liberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning.”
• “Transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe.
• Man must acknowledge a body of moral truths that were intuitive and must TRANSCEND more sensational proof:
o The infinite benevolence of God.
o The infinite benevolence of nature.
o The divinity of man.
• They instinctively rejected all secular authority and the authority of organized churches and the Scriptures, of law, or of conventions
Emerson & Thoreau
Therefore, if man was divine, it would be wicked that he should be held in slavery, or his soul corrupted by superstition, or his mind clouded by ignorance!!
Thus, the role of the reformer was to restore man to that divinity which God had endowed them.

More strict laws about slavery

1830

Bc of Nat Turner’s revolt
Fears
Free blacks removed from close supervision=rebellion
Community of free blacks growing bigger
Dangerous ex to slaves
Rise of abolitionaist agitation in north
Almost impossible to set free slaves
All southern salves didnt let in free af am

southern states started shifting to other cash crops

1830

tobacco cultivation moved west

Colonization Movement looses strength

1830

bc of cotton boom

Literature in Antebellum South Expands

1830 - 1840

Nat Turner's rebellion

1831

led af am w weapons
went from house to house to kill whites
state and federal troops suppressed
cause of much white fear of slave rebellions

The Liberator is pulbished

1831

• Abolitionist Movement
o 1816→american colonization society created
• advocated gradual, voluntary emancipation
• society forms during monroe
• advocated returning slaves to af
• wanted to give emancipated slaves the opporutnity to emigrate to africa
• est Liberia

Antislavery Societies expand

1832 - 1838

Abolitionism has Internal divisions

1835 - 1840

• george ripley
• 1841 MA
• all residents shar elabor equally and leisure equally
• first to make leisure positive
• manuel labor
o helepd bridge gap btwn world of intellect and world of isntict
• after 1840, lots of diff versions
• others were more moderate and wanted peacful gradual getting rid fo slavery
o wanted to appeal to the conscience of slaveholders
o went to politics and tried to get them to help
o helped runaway slaves find refuge

Advocate of moral reform

1835

social reform=prostitution, the fallen women
• female moral reofrm socity
o focused on the “johns” and pimps, not the girls
• women
o little opportunities of jobs
o little education
o a lot were pushed into prostitution out of desperation

Temperance Movement

1836

american temperance society
• most are prosperous women
• alcoholism=supply meets demand
o new thing
o immigrants drank a lot
• part of irish culture
o clean water was rare

Women's Rights and Cult of Domisticity

1840

• Cult of Domesticity=slavery
o The 2nd great awakening inspired women to improve society
o Angelina grimké & Sarah grimké
• Southern abolitionsts
o Lucy stone
• American women’s suffrage association
• Edited Woman’s Journal

Liberty Party

1840

aboltitions passed “personal liberty laws”
• forbade state officials to help capture and return of runaways
• wanted congress to abolish slavery in territories and DC
• and to stop interstate slave trdae
• few ppl thought congress could interfere w this in states

Brook Farm

1841 - 1847

• george ripley
• 1841 MA
• all residents shar elabor equally and leisure equally
• first to make leisure positive
• manuel labor
o helepd bridge gap btwn world of intellect and world of isntict

Persnal Liberty Laws

1842

aboltitions passed “personal liberty laws”
• forbade state officials to help capture and return of runaways
• wanted congress to abolish slavery in territories and DC
• and to stop interstate slave trdae
• few ppl thought congress could interfere w this in states

The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass

1845

o become national events
o autobigraphy
o most read book in the US
o talks about pain and suffering slaves endured
o makes him a national figure

 Frederick Douglass
• Biracial
• At first works inside then is sent outside to work
• Escapes overseer
• Meets garrison
• Makes good speech that enthralls the crowd and garrison takes him under his wing

De Bow's Review

1846 - 1880

magazine advocated southern commercial and agri expansion
wanted southern econ indp from north
ironic bc example of southern dependency on north
--printed in ny
--had ads for northern companies

Oneida Community

1848

o Millenarianism --> the 2nd coming of Christ had already occurred.
o Humans were no longer obliged to follow the moral rules of the past.
• All residents married to each other
• Carefully regulated “free love”

Seneca Falls

1848

o Demands full rights of citenzenship of women
o Equal treatment of women
• “Declaraiton of Rights and Sentiments”
o echoes seneca falls

Dorthea Dix Asylum

1849

o Aruges for penitentiary refomr
o Advocated incarceration=opportunity for rehabilitation
• First attempt to deal w something they didn’t fully understand
o Before, just put them away

White Society in the South

1850

1850 Small minortiy of southern whites owned slaves
the planter class
planter aristocracy
• a lot of power and inlfuence
• but not many in numbers
• control of econ political and social of region
social life
• traveled a lot
most were new to wealth and power
• were first generation settlers
• so comfort and luxury were recent
plantation management
• growing staple crops=competitive and risky
• had to supervise fields carefully
o super competative
many weatlhy planters lived modeslty
• didn’t hv much left for personal comfort
• move frequently to new and more producive areas
many southerners wanted to make themselves look like genteel aristocrats
• determined to defend their positions
• so defense of slavery and soouthern way of life was more stronger in new regions of lower south and weaker in tidewater
aristocratic values
• avoided course occupations like trade and commerce
• if not planter, was in mlitary
Honor
Defended their honor w dueling
Lots of courtesy and respect
• Maybe to distance away from cruely of slave sys
• Violation of courtesy=violent and heated response
Honor=ethical behavior and bravery
Imp to public appearance of dignity and authroity
Anyting to challenge dignity or manhood
• =duel
• ex: preston brooks beat someone bc he insultied family
o =southern honor
needed to avenge insults bc was a social necessity
The southern lady
Affluent white southern women almost=middle class white women
• Home
• Companions and hostesses
• Mothers
Diff
• More importance of defense of women
• So white men more dominant
• Lived on farms isolated, no access to public world
• Family=principal econ unit
o So patriarcchal
o Women=more engageing in econ life of family
• Did production
• Did agri tasks
• Helped supervise slaves
• But someitmes didn’t work and was an ornament
Edu
• Less acess to edu than north
• Few women had more than rudimentary schooling
• All the female schools geared towards teaching how to be wives
births
• Southern birth rate higher than north
• Infant mortality was higher
Slavery
• Saved women from working hard
• But male slaveowners had sexual relationships w female salves
Rebellion
• Some rebelled against roles
• Som abolitionsits
• Had few outlets
Most defended virtues of souhern way of life
Defended separate class lines
The plain folk
Typical white southerner=yeoman farmer
slaves
• Few slaves
o Worked closer w them
• Most owned no slaves
Owned own land for subsitence farmng mostl
• Grew cotton and stuff for the market
o But couldn’t make enough to get out of debt or expand
1850s=nonslaveholding landowners inc faster than slaveholding landowners
bc of Edu
• Poor whites had few opporutnites
• Universities only upper class
• Elementary and secondary schools=fewer and inferior to north
• More illterate whites in south
Hill people
• Few
• Southern highlanders
• Lived in appalacian
• Backcountry
• Cut off from commercial world
• Isolated
• Simple subsistence
• No slaves
• Seculded
• No surplus for market
• Little access to money
o Bartered
• Indivd personal freedom
• Slavery
o Unattractive
o Threatened sense of independence
• Loyalty to nation as a whole
• oppesed platner elite
o didn’t like sectional conformity
• so refuesd to support conederacy
nonslaveowning whites
• in plantation sys
• small famrers who depended on local plantation aristocracy for
o access to cotton gins
o markets
o credit or financial assistance
alos other kinship networks linking upper class and lower
• so less class tensions
politics
• south=democratic
o participation in politics more widespread than north
• a sense of connection to social order
• officeholders more aristocratic
1850s=small farmers hv opporutnity to improve econ
• some bought more land and slaves
• others felt more secure as indp yeoman
family
• more commited to paternalism
o stable sys of gender relaitons for order and stability
when north attacked slaveyr, 1840-1850s
• assault on one hierarchial sys (ex: slavery)=open up to attacks on others (ex: patriarchy)
lowest class
• didn’t participate in plantation econ
• occupied infertile lands of pine barrons
• miserable cabins
• owned no land
• foraged or hunted
• ohters were common laborers for neighbors
o slavery hindered that
• usually ppl w deficiencies or disease
o pellagra, hookworm, malaria
• worse than slaves
• no opposition to plantation or slavery
• so poor tht didn’t hv strength to protest
• unifying factor
o perception of race
• even though were poor, could still be higher than blacks
• maintain racial supremacy
• see themselves as ruling race.
o reduced tensions

The Narrative of Sojourner Truth

1850

 Frederick Douglass
• Biracial
• At first works inside then is sent outside to work
• Escapes overseer
• Meets garrison
• Makes good speech that enthralls the crowd and garrison takes him under his wing

Educational Reform

1860

• relig training=secular educaiotn
• MA à always on the forefront of public educational reform
* 1st state to establish tax support for local public schools.
• By 1860 every state offered free public education to whites.
* US had one of the highest literacy rates.

Horace mann
o children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials
o children should be “molded” into a state of perfection
o discouraged corporal punishment
o established state teacher-training programs
• first time
• very scripted lessons
o whig politician
o in order to have a nation of manufactueres, needed an educated population
• and wanted a more educated voting mass
o not southern, more northern

• Women Educators
o Reform movements were linked

Short staple cotton production sperad

1860

good bc could grow in many climates and variety of soil
bad bc harder to process (but then cotton gin fixed that)
cotton demand grew bc of textile industry in brit growth
many new cotton regions emerged
moved west

Lincoln is elected

1860

after election 11 states have seceded

Chapter 13 and 14

Americans in Texas

1820 - 1830

Mexican govt encouraged American immigration into Texas hoping to strengthen territory’s economy and increase tax revenues, buffer against Indians, would prevent US expansion- 1824 Mex bill offered cheap land

Thousands took deal, land suitable for cotton, soon American population larger than Mexican. American intermediaries to Mex govt brought settlers- most famous Stephen Austin. Later attempts to stem US immigration failed

Tension btwn US settlers and Mex govt grew b/c immigrants continued cultural + economic ties to US, also b/c desire to legalize slavery after it was outlawed in 1830

Texas Declares Independence

1836

Mid 1830s Mex General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna seized power as dictator- new law increased power of nat’l govt over state govts, Austin imprisoned. 1835 Mex sent more troops, 1836 Texans declared independence

Santa Anna led large army into TX, Americans unorganized and easily defeated (Battle of the Alamo in San Antonio). Then General Sam Houston defeated Mexicans 1836 at Battle of San Jacinto, the captured Santa Anna signed treaty making TX independent.

Americans Moving to Oregon

1840 - 1850

Large amt of Americans began emigrating to Oregon early 1840s, soon outnumbered GB’s settlers, destroyed native pop. Mid-1840s desire for annex.

Texas Charter for Statehood

1844

TX sought allies in Eur who wanted to check US power, Pres Tyler sought TX to reapply for statehood 1844, rejected by Senateissue in 1844 election

Oregon Border Conflict

1845

Polk proposed Oregon border @ 49th parallel, GB refused, led to US cry “Fifty-four forty or fight!”. 1846 GB accepted treaty w/ border at 49th parallel

Wilmot Proviso

1846

Rep David Wilmot’s “Wilmot Proviso”: prohibit slavery from territories acquired by Mex- failed Senate. Polk extended Missouri Compromise line to territory on West coast. Alternative- “popular sovereignty”- states decided

Mexican War

January 1846 - February 1848

Polk attempted diplomacy by sending special minister to Mex to purchase lands. When Polk heard MX rejected offer sent Gen. Taylor’s army from Nueces R to Rio Grande R January 1846

May 1846 US declaration of war. Whig critics of war b/c thought Polk instigated, intensified as war cont and public aware of casualties and expense

American forces successful in capturing NE Mexico, Polk ordered offensive against New Mexico and California. Col Stephen Kearny captured Santa Fe, then aided US forces in CA’s “Bear Flag Revolution”, captured CA

When Mex refused to cede defeat Polk sent Gen Winfield Scott to capture Mexico City. After taking city new Mex govt took power that was willing to negotiate treaty. Some in US wanted to annex part of Mexico, but w/ election soon Polk wanted war ended quickly. Sent envoy Nicolas Trist for settlement.

Feb 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo agreed to where Mex ceded CA and NM to US and acknowledged Rio Grande boundary of TX. US agreed to pay Mex $15 million. Despite to Mex annexations Polk accepted treaty

Gold Rush in CA

1848 - 1849

Some wanted riches after CA gold discovery 1848, others take advance of cheap land fed govt selling, others on religious mission (Mormons)

Taylor won 1848 election, pressure to resolve slavery in territories urgent b/c of events in CA- 1848 Gold Rush lead to dramatic increase in CA’s population, migrants known as “Forty-niners” mainly men

Gold Rush led to many Chinese migrants to Western US. Labor shortage in CA (due to ppl flocking to fold fields) created opportunities for ppl who needed work. Also led to exploitation of Natives, “Indian hunters”

Most didn’t find gold, but many sated in CA and swelled agricultural + urban populations. Population diverse- white Americans, Eurs, Chinese, Mexicans, free blacks, slaves of southern migrants—tension led territory to be a turbulent place, therefore pressure to create a stable and effective govt to bring order

Compromise of 1850

1850

Henry Clay proposed compromise to Congress in 1850- admitted CA as free state, new territorial govts w/o slave restrictions, new tough fugitive slave law

First phase of debating comp led by older voices of Clay, Calhoun, Webster and broad ideal of settling slave issue once and for all

After Clay proposal defeated, second phase of debate led by younger group: William Seward of NY opposed compromise, Jefferson Davis of MI saw slavery in terms of South’s economic self-interest, Stephen Douglas of IL

Douglas proposed Clay compromise split into smaller measured and voted on (difft sections could vote for measures that they supported), used govt bonds and railroad construction to gain support. Comp passed in September- less widespread agreement on ideals then victory of self-interest

President Millard Fillmore

1850 - 1852

W/ death of Taylor in 1850 (who refused compromise until CA admitted), new Pres Millard Fillmore supported compromise, rallied N Whig support

Gadsden Purchase

1853

RR used to solve communication problems btwn old states + areas W of Miss. R., movement for transcontinental RR. Disagreement over whether eastern terminus should be in North’s Chicago or in the South. Jefferson Davis organized Gadsden Purchase 1853 from Mex to make S route possible

Kansas-Nebraska Controversy

1855 - 1856

Settlers from N + S settling Kansas, but for 1855 elections southerners from Missouri traveled to Kansas to vote. Pro-slavery legislature elected, legalized slavery. Free-state supporters in state formed own Const, applied statehood

Pro-slave forces burned down anti-slave govt, abolitionist John Brown then killed 5 pro-slave settlers (Pottawatomie Massacre). Led to armed warfare by armed bands, “Bleeding Kansas” became symbol of sectional controversy

1856 anti-slavery Charles Sumner of MA gave speech entitled “The Crime Against Kansas” critical of slavery defender Sen Butler of SC. Butler’s nephew Preston Brooks came to Sen, beat Sumner w/ cane- both became hero

Dred Scott Decision

1857

March 1857 Supreme Court ruled in Dred Scott v Sandford- Scott was slave who after masters death sued widow for freedom on grounds that master had moved residence to a free state, but John Sanford (brother of deceased owner, Sup C. misspelled name) claimed ownership of Scott

Defeat for antislavery movement. Supreme Court had multiple decisions, Chief Justice Roger Taney: Scott could not bring suit in fed court b/c was not a citizen, blacks had virtually no rights under Const, slaves property & 5th Amendment forbid taking property w/o “due process” and therefore Congress had no authority to pass law depriving persons of slave property in territories (thereby ruling Missouri Compromise had been unconstitutional)

Did not challenge rights of state to limit slavery, but fed govt now powerless

Pres Buchanan endorsed Dred Scott decision

Lincoln-Douglas Debates

1858

In 1858 Congressional elections Repub Abraham Lincoln ran against famed Dem Stephen Douglas. Lincoln-Douglas debates attracted attention

Lincoln’s attacks on slavery prominent- argued if nation didn’t accept blacks had human rights then it could accept other groups such as immigrant laborers could be deprived of rights too. Also, extension of slavery in territories would lead to lost opportunity for betterment by poor white laborers

Lincoln opposed slavery but not abolitionist b/c did not see easy alternative to slavery in areas where it existed. Prevent spread of slavery to territories, trust institution would gradually die out in areas where it existed

Douglas won but Lincoln gained following. Dems lost maj in House, kept Sen

Raid on Harper's Ferry

1859

1859 antislavery zealot from KS John Brown led followers to capture fort in Harpers Ferry VA hoping to lead slave rebellion. Uprising never occurred, Brown surrendered, tried for treason by VA and hanged

Convinced white southerners that they could not live safely in Union, believed raid supported by Repub party and that North now wanted slave insurrection

Secession begins

1860

South Carolina voted Dec 1860 to secede, by time Lincoln came to office six more states (Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, TX) seceded

Fort Sumter

1861

Forces in fort running out of supplies, Lincoln informed SC govt that supply ships were being sent. South feared looking weak, ordered General PGT Beauregard to capture fort. Bombarded April 12-12,1861. Fort surrendered

After defeat of fort Lincoln began mobilizing for war, but 4 more slave states also seceded- VA, Arkansas, Tennessee, North Carolina. Other 4 slave states remained in Union- MD, Delaware, KY, Missouri)

Confiscation Acts

1861 - 1862

Lincoln cautious of emancipation but momentum gathered behind it- 1861 Confiscation Act freed all slaves used for “insurrectionary” purposes, second Confiscation Act in 1862 freed all slaves of ppl supporting the insurrection

Confederate States of America

1861

Seceded states formed Confederate States of America Feb1861. These states started seizing federal property but at first lacked power to seize the military instillations at Fort Sumter, SC and For Pickens, FL

National Bank Acts

1863 - 1864

National Bank Acts of 1863-1864 created new bank system- banks could join if they invested in govt, in turn could issue US Treasure notes as currency

Govt financed war thru taxes, paper currency, and borrowing. 1861 first ever income tax levied, govt “greenbacks” (paper money) issued (not on gold or silver standard), but mostly thru bonds sold to individuals and larger financial bodies

Emancipation Proclamation

1863

Lincoln seized leadership of antislavery sentiment- Sept 1862 after success at Battle of Antietam issued Emancipation Proclamation freeing slaves in all Confederate areas (but not Union slave states). Established war not only to maintain Union but also to eliminate slavery

13th Amendmant

1865

1865 Congress ratified 13th Amendment abolishing slavery in all parts of US