The History of Psychology


dark ages

800 BC

Gods, demonology, exorcism


500 BC

Regarded the brain as the organ of consciousness, intellect and emotion.
Believed normal brain function (mental health) depended on a balance of 4 bodily fluids; blood, black bile, yellow bile, and phlegm

The Dark Ages

130 - 200

Church gain influence, return to belief of the supernatural

Persecution of Witches, Lunacy Trials


Municipal Authorities took over some activities of the church.
The crown became guardian of 'lunitic' estates.

Development of Assylums


Leprosy Hospitals were converted to asylums.
Bethlehem conditions were deplorable

Mesmer - mysticism


Treatment for 'hysteria'.

Pinels Reforms


Primary figure in the movement for more humane treatment of people with psychiatric disorders. However people of lower class were still subjected to terror and coercion.

The Friends of Asylum established


Established to provide humane treatment, contact with attendents- became known as 'Moral Treatment Approach'.

Charcot -hypnosis


Charcot supports hypnotism as a worthy treatment for hysteria

Discovery of Biological Origins in General Paresis and Syphilis


Links noted between physiological and Psychological illnesses.

Louis Pasteur -germ theory

1860 - 1870

established germ theory

Moral Treatment Abandonment

1880 - 1900

Hospitals became administered byphysicians, more interested in biological aspects of illness.

Francis Galton - genetics/eugenics

1880 - 1890

genetic research with twin studies, 'nature vs nurture'.
Eugenics is the elimination of undesireable traits

Breuer- Cathartic Method


Relief of earlier emotional trauma and release of emotional tension by expressing previously forgottenthoughts/memories

Freud - psychoanalysis


unconscious conflict results in psychopathologial issues.
Psych = id, ego and superego.

Cerletti and Bini -ECT

1910 - 1939

Electric shocks to the side of head could induce seizures.
Used on person with schitzophrenia in 1938.

Rise of Behaviourism


Jung - analytical psychology/ collective unconscious


broke away from Frued
collective conscious is shared by all humansand used to conceptualise the world.

Adler - individual Psychology


'people are inextricably tied to their society' fulfillment found in doing things for the common good.

Moniz - prefrontal labotomy

1935 - 1950

Destroys tracts conecting frontal lobes from other parts of the brain, used mostly with violent behaviours.

A. Frued - defense mechanisms

1946 - 1966

a mechanism used by the ego to protect itself from anxiety.