The Early Modern Era: the 15th century through the 18th century


Songhai empire (Africa)

Approx. 1400 - 1591

The Songhai Empire was a state that dominated the western Africa in the 15th and 16th century. At its peak, it was one of the largest states in African history. The Songhai empire was a strict monarchy that was led by the ethnic group of the Songhai people.

Ming dynasty (Asia)

Approx. 1400 - 1644

The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the Empire of the Great Ming – for 276 years following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty. The Ming dynasty was a great, long and powerful time period in chinas history in the early modern era and was the umbrella so to speak above many changes in china, especially in religion.

Incan Empire (America)

1438 - Approx. 1572

Possibly the largest empire in the world in the late 15th to Early 16th century, the Inca empire was unique in that it lacked many features associated with civilization in the Old World but excelled at the basics and were Incredible farmers, Builders and Inventors, creatively making ways to help there every day problems with ease such as there advanced irrigation system.

Askia Muhammad (Africa)

1443 - 1538

Askia muhammad ruled the Songhai empire for the majority of the Songhai empire during the Askia dynasty. Also known as Askia the Great, Askia Muhammad was an emperor, military commander, and political reformer of the Songhai Empire.

Christopher Columbus (America)

Approx. October 31st, 1451 - May 20th, 1506

Christopher Columbus opened the way for European exploration, exploitation, and colonization of the Americas. He has long been called the “discoverer” of the New World. Columbus made his voyages under the sponsorship of Ferdinand II and Isabella I. He was at first full of hope and ambition, an ambition partly gratified by his title “Admiral of the Ocean Sea,” awarded to him in April 1492, and by the grants enrolled in the Book of Privileges.

The death of prince Henry the navigator (Europe)

November 13th 1460

Responsible for the early development of Portuguese exploration and maritime trade with other continents through the systematic exploration of Western Africa, the islands of the Atlantic Ocean, and the search for new routes. Prince Henry contributed much, to not only the development of Europe and its progression but the development of the world through his trade by connecting with other countries and opening new opportunities for resources and Ideas for everyone.

Martin Luther (Europe)

November 10th 1483 - February 18th 1546

The Birth of Martin Luther, A German monk who began the Protestant Reformation. Martin Luther was one of the most Influential and controversial figures in christian history and ultimately contributed a lot to Christianity as a religion.

The reformation (Europe)

Approx. 1500 - Approx. 1550

The Reformation, also referred to as the Protestant Reformation, was a schism from the Roman Catholic Church initiated by Martin Luther, a Movement in which sought out to fix the errors of the roman catholic church and spread a "new" Christianity across the world. Continued by John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and other early Protestant Reformers in 16th-century Europe.

The scientific revolution (Europe)

1543 - Approx. 1700

A long period of time In Europe in which there was an explosion in Science and discovery. Pioneers such as Issac newton and Galileo Gelilei are great examples of people who propelled the knowledge and expansion of the scientific revolution in Europe forward.

Tokugawa ieyasu (Asia)

January 31st, 1543 - June 1st, 1616

Tokugawa Ieyasu was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, which effectively ruled Japan from 1600 to 1800 under strict control.

End of the renaissance (Europe)

Approx. 1550

The Renaissance was a cultural movement that initially began in Florence, Italy, but later spread throughout Europe. It started around 1350 and ended around 1550. During the Renaissance things such as Art, learning and Music were developing rapidly and spreading in all different forms and areas in Europe. The end of the renaissance was a shift in where Art, Music and forms of expression and creativity were not necessarily dying but becoming more science and math focused hence the rise in the scientific revolution.

Shakespeare (Europe)

Approx. April 26th, 1564 - April 23rd, 1616

William Shakespeare was an English poet, playwright, and actor, widely regarded as the greatest writer in the English language among many. A master of comedies and histories Shakespeare the world's most influential dramatist making many world renowned plays, and pieces of poetry even to this day.

African slave trade (Africa)

1600 - Approx. 1800

The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade involved the transportation by slave traders of enslaved African people, mainly from Africa to the Americas, and then their sale there.

Tokugawa shogunate (Asia)

1600 - Approx. 1800

The Tokugawa shogunate, was the last feudal Japanese military government, which existed between 1600 and 1800. The head of government was the shogun, and each was a member of the Tokugawa clan.

Spanish Empire In the Early modern era (America)

1600 - Approx. 1800

The Spanish Empire was one of the largest empires in history. It reached the peak of its military, political and economic power under the Spanish Habsburgs, through most of the 16th and 17th centuries, and its greatest territorial extent under the House of Bourbon in the 18th century.

Issac newton (Europe)

January 4th, 1643 - Approx. March 31st, 1727

Sir Isaac Newton was an English mathematician, astronomer, and physicist who is widely perceived as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution for discovering gravity, inventing calculus and his monumental achievements in the laws of motion.

Age of enlightenment (Europe)

1650 - Approx. 1800

The Enlightenment included ideas focused on reason, logic, authority and legitimacy In Europe, and came to develop concepts like liberty, progress, tolerance, fraternity, constitutional government and separation of church and state.