His research finds that some adult learners are motivated by their goals, others by human interaction and others for the sake of knowledge.
Economic Opportunity Act
Signed by President Johnson as first legislation providing for Adult Literacy Education. Literacy was seen as a method to increase job opportunities
Adult Education Act of 1966
Moved Adult Education into the U.S. Office of Education solidifying Adult Education as a federal responsibility.
Knowles uses term andragogy for first time
Malcolm Knowles uses andragogy to describe his beliefs around what motivates adults to learn.
Tough contributes The Adult's Learning Projects
Tough contributes idea of self-directed learning.
1978 Amendments to the Adult Education Act
Purpose of Adult Education expanded to include Indochina refugees and adult immigrants.
Department of Education created
Enrollment in Adult Education Programs at the state level surpasses two million.
American Assocation of Adult and Continuing Education forms
As a result of a merger between the National Association for Public and Continuing Education and the Adult Education Association, the American Association of Adult and Continuing Education is formed to provide leadership in the area of Adult Education. They publish Adult Education Quarterly and hold an annual conference.
David Kolb publishes Experiential Learning
Kolb outlines four learning styles which are: Concrete experience, Reflective observation, Abstract conceptualization, and Active experimentation. He theorizes that individuals prefer one style of learning over others.
Adult Education Amendments of 1988
Required the creation of the definition of literacy and a report on literacy in the U.S. This resulted in National Adult Literacy Survey in 1992.
President Bush and the 50 governors met to create education goals for the nation. For the first time, Adult Education was included.
Howard Gardner's Multiple Intelligences
Howard Gardner's book, Multiple Intelligences, is released outlining the theory that each individual has different levels of intelligences and primarily uses one or two to learn. His intelligences include: Musical, Spatial/Visual, Bodily Kinesthetic, Interpersonal and Intrapersonal.
National Institute for Literacy
The purpose of the Institute was to be a national resource for adult education and literacy. It existed for 19 years.
National Literacy Act
Adult education programs were increased to link literacy and basic skills to creating greater job opportunities. It created a national clearinghouse for adult literacy which included training for teachers, research and sharing information.
Required that no less than 10% of a state's education budget go to supporting education programs for incarcerated adults.
Included funding for "Even Start" programs linking early childhood education with adult education for parents.
Accountability requirements were increased with indicators of success spelled out so that states could evaluate the effectiveness of their programs.
College and Career Readiness Standards for Adult Education
U.S. Department of Education adopts Adult Education Standards based on Common Core Standards
President's Obama's Goal
President Obama set the goal for the United States to have the highest level of college education individuals in the world by 2020. CTE will become an increasingly important aspect of Adult Education in years to come.