History Time Line

Events

Siddartha Guatama

563 BCE - 483 BCE

The teachings of Siddhartha Gautama are considered the core of Buddhism. His teachings were to walk the riotous path and to try to achieve Nirvana. The Buddha did not give you the to live your life only the tools to live it right.

Cyrus the Great

559 bc - 530 bc

Cyrus was the founder of the Persian Empire, he wrote the Cyrus Cylinder which is considered to be the first declaration of human rights.

Achaemenid Dynasty

558 BCE - 330 BCE

The Achaemenid Dynasty was founded by Cyrus the great, the people were united under Cyrus, and changed from their nomadic lives.

Confucius

Approx. 551 BCE - Approx. 479 BCE

Confucius was a Chinese philosopher who´s thoughts became Confucianism. Confucianism is still present in Chinese society today.
2.1

Roman Republic

509 BC - 27 BC

Rome was ruled by a group of people called the senate, they voted on all of the decisions. In a time of war they could elect a dictator that would rule for six months. The fall of the Republic was brought about by Augustus, who created an empire.

Greco-Persian Wars

Approx. 499 BCE - Approx. 449 BCE

This was a conflict between the Greeks and the Persians. Darius made an attempt to conquer Greece. Athens and the rest of the Greek city states were able to repel the Persian threat.
2.2

Collapse of Western Roman Empire

Approx. 476 BCE

The fall of the Roman Empire is highly debated because, there are two main theories as to what happened. One was the influx of the ¨barbarians¨ from the north and the west. Other historians blame the fall of Rome on Christianity where the Roman morality was diminished.

Socrates, Plato, Aristotle

470 BCE - 322 BCE

These were three Greek philosophers, they developed the first western philosophy. They also developed the common standard of ethics for the western world.

Peloponnesian Wars

431 BCE - 404 BCE

The Peloponnesian Wars were fought between Athens and Sparta. This split the mainland Greece in half because all of the other city-states chose between Athens and Sparta. Sparta ended up winning the wars, but the whole of Greece was at a loss.

Alexander the Great

356 BCE - 323 BCE

Alexander was the son of Philip of Macedonia. Alexander went on to conquer most of the known world at the time. He spread Greek culture across the Asia continent.
2.2 and 2.1

Mauryan Dynasty

321 BCE - 185 BCE

The Mauryan stepped into the power vacuum left after Alexander the Great´s conquering. Founded by Chandragupta who aggressively expanded the empire.
2.2

Ashoka

Approx. 268 BCE - Approx. 232 BCE

Ashoka was the third emperor in the Mauryan Empire. His empire contained 30 million people, and after his death the empire fell apart. He was said to have slaughtered thousands of people in his conquests to expand his empire. After one particular battle he looked at all of the carnage that he had created and proclaimed that he would be a pacifist from now on. He was also a large advocate for Buddhism.
2.2 and 2.1

Qin Dynasty and Shi Huangdi

221 BCE - 206 BCE

The Qin Dynasty united the warring states into one country named China. Shi Huangdi was the first emperor of China, he also began the building of the great wall.
2.2

Han Dynasty

Approx. 206 BCE - Approx. 220 CE

The Han dynasty was one of the longest of China's major empires. The Han Dynasty was a golden age for China, art, politics, and technology grew.

Augustus (Octavian)

63 BCE - 14 CE

Augustus was the first Emperor of Rome, he replaced the republic with an Empire. Augustus provided the people of Rome with entertainment and he gave out money to try and kick start the roman economy.

Pax Romana

Approx. 27 BCE - Approx. 180 CE

This was a period of peace that lasted for more than 200 years. The period began with the reign of Augustus.
2.2

Jesus

5 BCE - 30 CE

Jesus was a Jewish preacher and religious leader. Jesus created Christianity, a abrahamic religion, that endorsed the idea of one god. He was crucified by the Romans because he was a leader that opposed the Roman ideals. The construction however worked against them because Jesus became a martyr.

Yellow Turban Rebellion

184 CE - 205 CE

This was a peasant revolt, Emperor Ling was in Power. During the time the lower class was suffering from famine and poverty. The Han Dynasty was losing power and made the people not trust the government.

Mayan civilization

Approx. 300 CE - Approx. 800 CE

The Mayans are the native people of Mexico and Central America. They perfected mathematics, astronomy, and the calendar.
2.2

Gupta Dynasty

Approx. 320 CE - Approx. 550 CE

The Gupta empire stretched across the northern and central parts of India. This was considered the ¨golden age of India¨ where there was much prosperity and growth among the people.
2.2

Christianity becomes official state religion of the Roman Empire

380 CE

Theodosius passed the edict Cunctos populos where he declared Christianity the official religion of Rome.

Kingdom of Ghana

400 CE - 1200 CE

The Kingdom of Ghana was located in western Mali, the rise of Mali can be attributed to the beginning of the trans-Saharan trade routes. The kingdom of Ghana was originally called Wagadu but was later renamed by the Arabs. Ghana's main exports consisted of gold, kola-nuts, and ivory.
3.1

Beginning of Trans-Saharan trade

500 CE - 800 CE

Berber-speaking people began crossing the Sahara Desert. After the 8th century anal trade routes that were later described by Arabic authors. The rise of the Soninke empire of Ghana led to the start of the Trans-Saharan trade network.
2.3

Muhammad

570 - 632

Muhammad was a prophet and the founder of Islam, he was God's messenger that would bring the word of Allah to the people. He promotes the monotheistic faith like prophets before him. Muhammed would see the people of Christianity and Judaism as people of the book like his own and that God had revealed himself to others before him.
3.2

Tang dynasty

618 - 907

The Tang Dynasty preceded by the Sui and was thought of as one of China's Golden ages. The first ruler of the Tang dynasty was the first and olny Chinese empress. The dynasty would becaome a period of stability during the first half of the empire but would become currupt.
3.2

Umayyad dynasty

661 - 750

The Umayyad dynasty was the second caliphate of the Muslim world. The Umayyads would continue the Muslim conquests, and it became one of the largest empires of the region. The Umayyads upheld the promise from Muhammed that the Abrahamic religions would be able to continue their faith but they would be more heavily taxed if they did not convert.
3.2

Abbasid Dynasty

750 - 1258

The Abbasid Dynasty was the third Islamic dynasty after Muhammed. The city of Baghdad was founded as the capital of the Abbasid government. The city of Baghdad was and still is a large city of education and comerce.
3.2

Reign of Charlemagne

768 - 814

Charlemagne was otherwise known as Charles the first was the King of the Franks. He became the Emperor of the Romans in 800 and he united a large portion of Europe. Charlemagne was the first Emperor of the Romans since the fall of Western Rome.
3.2

Heian period

794 - 1185

This period was known for the flourishing of Japanese culture. The government became controlled by the Fujiwara clan, they were eventually challenged by the Taira and Minimoto clans.
3.2

Song dynasty

960 - 1279

The Song Dynasty was in constant conflict with the northern dynasties of China. Then the song was later conquered by Kublai Khan and was brought into the Yuan Dynasty. The song is also divided into two periods the north and the south where the song controlled either.
3.2

Schism between eastern and western Christian Church

1054

The schism was the break in communication between the eastern and western sects of Christianity. Each side of the church thought of the others as heretics and starting the division between the two. The foundation of the schism was based on the thought of iconoclasm, the use of idols.

Norman invasion of England

1066

The Norman conquest of England was led by William the Conqueror. The battle of Hastings was the pivotal point in the conquest of England because this is where the King was killed when the battle was won by the Normandie. There were frequent uprisings of the people after the defeat of Harold and William was not able to secure the throne until 1072.
3.2

First Crusade

1096 - 1099

The first crusade was the only crusade to be successful, the crusade was fought against the Muslims over the Holyland Jerusalem. The cusade was sanctioned by the pope and caught the Muslims by supprize. The pope called the people to arms to help Byzantium, over the Seljuk turks having captured much of anotolia.
3.1

Reign of Genghis Khan

1206 - 1227

Gengis Khan was the founder of the Mongol Empire which became the largest contiguous empire in history. Gengis's conquests started by unifying the nomadic tribes of the Mongolian Steppe. His campaigns would often have large-scale massacre and looting. The Empire stretched from Korea to Eastern Europe.
3.2

Sultanate of Delhi

1206 - 1526

The Delhi Sultanate was a Muslim kingdom in India, there were five dynasties that would rule over Delhi sequentially. The Sultanate of Delhi would be one few states to be able to repel the Mongols and not be brought into the empire.
3.2

Mongol conquest of all of China

1211 - 1279

The Mongol conquests of China were a set of major efforts of the Mongol empire to take the main body of China. Chinggis Khan started these efforts during the formation of the Mongol Empire. Later Kublai Khan would become the ruler of the Mongol empire thrn he would establish the Yuan Dynasty while snuffing out the last of the Song Dynasty.
3.2

Mali Empire

1230 - 1600

The Mali Empire was the largest empire in West Africa and it heavily influenced the culture of West Africa with the spread of its language and its laws and customs. The Mali Empire started to develop during the decline of the Kingdom of Ghana to the north.
3.2

Marco Polo's trip to China

1271 - 1295

As Marco Polo traveled he recorded his experiences throughout his travels. This book much like Ibn Battuta's journey provides an account of the people and customs of the people he met. These accounts can be somewhat unbelievable and exaggerated and was called out for this in his home town after he published his book.
3.1

Yuan dynasty

1279 - 1368

The Yuan dynasty was a Mongolian dynasty in China that would eventually control all of China. They would conquer the southern song and unite the Chinese region.
3.2

Ottoman dynasty

1299 - 1922

The Ottoman Empire was founded in the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia by Osman who was the Oghuz tribe's leader. The empire was a multinational and multilingual superpower of the time. The Ottomans were one of the three gunpowder empires, which consisted of the Ottomans, the Safavids, and the Mughals.
4.3

Reign of Mansa Musa

1312 - 1337

Mansa Musa was a great conqueror and was thought of as the richest man in history. During his pilgrimage to Mecca, he spent so much gold in some cities that he upset the market for years. He also just gave gold to the poor that he met along his journey to Mecca and is well known for his generosity.
3.2

Ibn Battuta’s journey

1324 - 1354

Ibn Battuta was a trader who's voyage started with his first pilgrimage to Mecca. He visited many Islamic and non-Islamic lands, his accounts of his voyages provided valuable information to historians around the world.
3.1

The Hundred Years War

1337 - 1453

The hundred years war was fought over the French throne by the French and the English. England thought that they should have control over the French throne, but the French resisted and brought about a war that would last 116 years. This war would make both the French and the English rethink their military tactics.
3.2

Songhai Empire

1340 - 1591

At the peak of the Songhai Empire, it was one of the largest states in African History. The Songhai surpassed the Mali Empire in size, wealth, and power. Trade and commerce flourished under Songhai rule, especially in the city of Timbuktu, where culture grew.
4.1 4.3

First Bubonic Plague Pandemic

1347 - Approx. 1400

The Bubonic plague was a disease that was transmitted through the fleas on rats. The rats were brought about by trading ships theses ships were the one of the pestilences sources of transportation. The plauge in Europe would cheapen many things such as human lives or lives stock. The plauge would aslo bring about questions directed twards the chirches authority.
3.3

Ming dynasty

1368 - 1644

The Ming dynasty followed the Mongol Yuan dynasty and is often called the great Ming. The emperor of the MIng, Hongwu, established a social system that attempted to create a self-sufficient society. This system also made it possible for a very large military to be supported, with some accounts being close to one million soldiers.
3.2

Zheng He's expeditions

1371 - 1435

A set of voyages to Southeast Asia, South Asia, Western Asia, and East Africa. Zheng He was Grand Director of the Directorate of Palace Servants. He later became the Cheif Envoy, he collected tribute and traded with the eastern Pacific and the Indian Ocean.
3.1

Start of the Portuguese Slave Trade

Approx. 1400

The Portuguese slave trade started in the 15th century when the Portuguese started to explore the West African coast. Around 1650, the start of plantations in the Caribbean caused the trade to explode.
4.1

Inca Empire

1438 - 1533

The Inca Empire was located in ancient Peru, their empire would eventually stretch across South America. The Inca would become the largest empire in the Americas and the world at the time. The people of the Inca empire would be able to manipulate many diverse enviroments.
3.3

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Luther was a German composer, monk, and a large figure in the Protestant Reformation. Luther opposed many of the Roman Catholic Church's ideas and teachings. Luther is known to be the founder of the Lutheran Faith as an alternate faith of Catholicism, where people did not earn salvation through good deeds but only given by God's grace.
4.2

Dias' voyage into Indian Ocean

1488

Bartolomeu Dias was a Portuguese nobleman and exploror who sailed around the southernmost tip of Africa. He reached the Indian Ocean from the Atlantic. This new trade route made it possible for the Europeans to avoid Muslim medians and make the most direct profit.
4.1

Columbus' first voyage

August 3, 1492

Two months after Columbus set out on his voyage he landed on the island of San Salvador. For five months after Columbus landed, he explored the Caribean. Then he returned to Spain to report on his findings. Columbus reported his finding to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella.
4.3

Treaty of Tordesillas

1494

The treaty of Tordesillas was an agreement between Portugal and Spain that had aimed to end the conflict over the Americas found by Columbus and other travelers. The treaty would give the West to Castile and the east would belong to Portugal. Although both Portugal and Spain adhered to this treaty for the most part most other countries did not.
4.3

Safavid dynasty

1501 - 1722

The Safavid Empire is one of the most significant empires in Iran and is considered the start of modern Iranian history. The Safavids were often in conflict with the other gunpowder empires, namely the Ottomans. The Safavid revived the Persian economic powerhouse that resided between the east and west.
4.3

Spanish conquest of Mexico/Aztecs

1517 - 1521

The Spanish Inquisition of Latin America was the most important events after Columbus created the first settlement in the Caribbean. The campaign into Latin America was led by Hernan Cortez and was very successful because of the lack of resistance to the conquistadors. In many cases, the Spanish were often helped by the Aztec's opposition.
4.3

Reign of Suleiman the Magnificent

1520 - 1566

Suleiman was a ruler of the Ottoman Empire during the height of the empire. Suleiman led his armies to conquer most of Hungary and many Christian strongholds. He also took control of much of the middle east while fighting with the Safavids as well as many places in northern Africa. Suleiman would bring about and rule over the empire during the golden age.
4.3

Mughal dynasty

1526 - 1707

The Mughal Empire was located on the Indian subcontinent, it was a Muslim ruled Dynasty over non-muslim peoples. This caused some issues with the cohesion of the empire's peoples. The Mughals replaced the Delhi Sultanate. The Mughals tried to not intervene in the practices of the people they resided over for most of the Dynasties rule.
4.3

Spanish conquest of the Incas

1532 - 1533

In addition to the conquest of the Aztecs, the Spanish would take heavily from the Incas. Whether it is in the form of labor such as the mines of Potosi, or it is the food that they bring home that would become the staple of many European countries.
4.3

Foundation of Society of Jesus (Jesuits)

1534

Jesuits were the members of the Society of Jesus, which was a Roman Catholic order of religiously dedicated men. The members participated in charitable works, missionary, and educational services. The Jesuits were one of the agents for anti-reformation, but later promoted the modernization of the church.
4.2

Council of Trent

1545 - 1563

The Council of Trent was held in the city of Trent, located in northern Italy. The council was hosted by the Catholic Church as a form of anti-reformation. The council talked about the heresies of the Protestant faiths and promoted the key teachings and statements of the church.
4.2

Reign of Akbar

1556 - 1605

Akbar was a ruler of the Mughal empire and heavily influenced the course of India's history. He would expand the Mughal borders to encompass most of the Indian subcontinent and increase the wealth of the empire. Akbar would lay the foundations for a multi-cultural empire in India. By educating himself on the beliefs of his subjects, because he was a Muslim ruling over a mostly non-muslim country.
4.3

Galileo Galilei

1564 - 1642

Galileo was an Italian man who was well versed in many subjects. He was also one of the pivotal people in the transition to modern science and was one of the forefathers of the scientific revolution. Galileo was the founder of the thought that the sun is the center of the solar system and not the earth.
4.2

Tokugawa shogunate

1603 - 1868

The Tokugawa Shogunate was the last Japanese feudal military government. The Tokugawa Shogunate would bring an end to the warring states period and bring Japan under one central rule. Government was split into two groups, one was the daimyo and the other was the samurai where the daimyo were on top.
4.3

Thirty Years' War

1618 - 1648

The Thirty Years' War was fought mainly in central Europe and is one of the longest lasting and the most deadly religious wars in Western History. The war began between the Catholics and Protestants, in the Holy Roman Empire, but ended with most of the powers of Europe involved.
4.2

John Locke

1632 - 1704

John Locke was an English physician and philosopher and is thought of as one of the most influential thinkers of the enlightenment period. Locke is most widely known as the "Father of Liberalism", and he endorsed the theory of the social contract.
4.2

Qing dynasty

1644 - 1912

The Qing dynasty was the last imperial empire of China, and it succeeded the Ming Empire. The Ming who ruled before were replaced by the Manchus that would form the Qing Dynasty. The early rulers would try to keep their Manchu ways and practiced Tibetan Buddhism but governed by Confucian ideas and kept many of the institutions of the previous empire.
4.3

Seven Years' War

1756 - 1763

The Seven Years' War was held between to main factions, one was headed by Britain and the other by France, although involving most European Powers. The war affected 5 continents, including Europe, Asia, America, Africa, and the Philippines. This and the French and Indian war would bring France into one of the most chaotic and violent revolutions in European history.
4.3

American Revolution

1775 - 1783

The American Revolution started as a political unrest in the colonies of America. The revolution ended in revolt against Britan and was successful. The 13 colonies then became the United States of America.
5.3

James Watt perfects steam engine

1775

James Watt was a Scottish instrument maker and inventor whose steam engine contributed the increase in the Industrial Revolution. The Watt steam engine was the first steam engine to make use of a separate condenser, which utilized differences in atmospheric pressure.
5.1

Establishment of 1st colony in Australia

1788

Austrailia was first colonized by Brittan in 1788 at the modern city of Sydney. The new colonies would bring devastating effects to the indigenous people of Austrailia. The British colonization of Austrailia was first used as a place to put prisoners that there was no room for in the mother country.
4.3

French Revolution

1789 - 1799

The Revolution overthrew the monarchy, established a republic, violent periods of political turmoil. Inspired by liberal and radical ideas, the Revolution altered the course of history by triggering a global decline of absolute monarchies and replacing them with republics and liberal democracies.
5.3

Haitian Revolution

1791 - 1804

The Haitian Revolution is one of the largest and most successful slave rebellions in the Western Hemisphere. It is certainly the only uprising that led to the creation of an independent nation. After the revolution, the nation of Hati was formed.
5.2

Reign of Napoleon

1799 - 1814

Napoleon was a French military leader who conquered most of Europe in the early 19th century. After taking power in France he crowned himself emperor.
5.3

Napoleonic Wars

1803 - 1815

The Napoleonic Wars were a set of conflicts pitting France led by Napoleon I, against many of the European powers, Supported and usually led by the United Kingdom.
5.3

End of the British slave trade

1807

The Abolition of the Slave Trade Act would bring an end to the Atlantic slave trade. Slavery, however, was not actually abolished until 26 years later. The abolishment of slavery was mainly supported by the enlightened thinkers of the time.
4.2

Simón Bolivar and Latin American Independence

1808 - 1826

Simón Bolívar was a Venezuelan soldier and statesman who led revolutions against Spanish rule in Latin America. Due to Napoleon's invasion of Spain, there was a lack of attention to the Americas made it possible to establish a rebellion from the Spanish.
5.3

Congress of Vienna

1814 - 1815

The Congress of Vienna was a meeting of European Embasitors and was held in Vienna. The objective was to provide a plan for peace in the future of Europe, after the French Revolutionary Wars and the Napoleonic wars. This was also meant to resize the powers to keep them in balance.
5.2

Opium War

1839 - 1842

The opium wars were two armed conflicts fought in China in the mid-19th century between Western countries and of the Qing dynasty. In each war, foreign powers were victorious and gained commercial, legal and territorial advantages in China.
5.2

Communist Manifesto published

1848

The Communist Manifesto is a pamphlet that was written by Karl Marx Friedrich Engels, who were German philosophers. The manifesto was commissioned by the Communist League and was published in London as many revolutions began to emerge.
5.3

Women’s Rights Convention, Seneca Falls, NY

1848

The Seneca Falls Convention was the first women's rights convention. It proposed itself as a convention to discuss the political, civil, and religious conditions and rights of woman.
5.3

Taiping rebellion

1850 - 1864

The Taiping rebellion was one of the most deadly rebellions ever, and one of the most politically important events in 19th century China. It lasted 14 years and killed around 20 million people.
5.3

Sepoy Rebellion

1857

The Sepoy Rebellion was a major but ultimately unsuccessful, uprising in India. The people rebelled against the British East India Company, which acted as the ruling power on behalf of Britain.
5.3

Origin of the Species published

1859

Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection was a groundbreaking scientific work by the British scientist Charles Darwin and was published in England. Darwin’s theory proposed that organisms gradually evolved through a process called natural selection. In which an organism mutates in a way that is more favorable for them in their current environment.
5.3

Emancipation of Russian serfs

1861

The Emancipation of Russian serfs was a manifesto issued by the Russian emperor Alexander II that accompanied 17 legislative acts that freed the serfs of the Russian Empire. This was due mostly to the want for Russia to be on equal footing in industrial areas.
5.3

Meiji restoration

1868 - 1912

Meiji Restoration was a political revolution that brought about the final end of the Tokugawa shogunate and ended the Tokugawa rule and, returned control of the country to direct imperial rule under Mutsuhito.
5.2

Unification of Germany

1871

Otto von Bismark set three wars into motion that would bring about the unification of Germany. The area was already mostly unified due to cultural similarities and the use of a common language.
5.2

Berlin West Africa Conference

1884 - 1885

The Berlin West Africa Conference was a set of negotiations between European powers that would regulate trade and colonization in Africa and was in line with Germany's sudden display as a global power on the world stage.
5.1

Indian National Congress founded

1885

The Indian National Congress was founded in Bombay, with 72 delegates in attendance. Indian National Congress was a broadly based political party of India. Formed in 1885, the Indian National Congress supported the movement for independence from imperialistic rule.
5.3

Russo-Japanese war

1904 - 1905

The Russo-Japanese War was started from the rivalry between Japan and Russia, due Japan had a decisive victory. This victory was a wake-up call for the "modern" world. This showed that Japan was a power of the world.
5.3

Mexican Revolution

1910 - 1920

The Mexican Revolution is one of the first major political, social, and cultural revolution of the 20th century. The United States was adversely affected by Mexican immigration due to refugees fleeing from the conflict.
5.3

Fall of Qing Dynasty

February 12 1912

Qing dynasty collapsed in the early 1900s. Internal challenges played a major role in the downfall of the Qing dynasty, these including corruption, unhappy peasants, bad rulers, and increase in population which led to food shortages.
5.3

Henry Ford and assembly line

1913

Henry Ford's moving assembly line was for the mass production of an entire car. His invention reduced the time it took to build the car from more than 12 hours to two hours and 30 minutes.
5.1

Panama Canal

1914

The Panama Canal is built in Panama, it is a 77km long canal that allows for ease of travel and assists in sea trade.
5.4