AP Histories


Marco Polo

1271 - 1295

Marco Polo travels to China.

Florentine Bankruptcy


Edward III of England repudiated all his debts onto Florentine banks, throwing Florence into bankruptcy.


Approx. 1350

Petrarch starts to develop the idea of humanism.

Leonardo Bruni

1374 - 1444

Bruni linked the decline of Latin to the fall of the Roman Empire. He was the first to divide history into 3 eras- ancient, Medieval, and modern.

Five Powerful Italian City-States

1400 - 1499

Venice, Florence, Milan, the Papal states, and the kingdoms of Naples were the major Italian powers during this time.

Leon Battista Alberti

1404 - 1472

Alberti was a writer of novels, plays, legal stuff, studies of families and perspective in art. He designed churches, fortifications, and created a machine that cipher and decipher codes. He referred to himself in the third person in his autobiography.

Marsilio Ficino

1433 - 1499

He taught Giovanni Pico della Mirandola, and was under the patronage of Cosimo de' Medici. He believed that Plato was inspired by God, and translated Plato's works into Latin. He also


1434 - 1737

The Medici family holds power in Florence.

Printing Press


Johann Gutenberg invents the printable press with movable type.



The Portuguese make a trading post in Africa at Arguin.


1447 - 1535

The Sforza family holds power in Milan.

Girolamo Savonarola

1452 - 1498

Savonarola was a Dominican friar who preached fiery sermons to the people in Florence. When the French invaded Italy in 1494, the people thought the world was ending so they ousted the Medici, and put Savonarola in power. He promised the Florentines glory, reorganized the government, and held bonfires in the streets. Eventually, he lost power as people got tired of his morals, and he was excommunicated by the Pope, tortured, and burned to death.

War of the Roses

1455 - 1471

The War of the Roses was fought between two noble English houses- the house of Lancaster and the house of York. Ultimately, the house of York won, with Edward IV taking the throne.

Edward IV of England

1461 - 1483

Edward IV was a Yorkist who won the War of the Roses. He reigned for over 20 years, and rebuilt the credibility of the English monarchy. He was a Tudor, and established law at the local levels.

Giovanni Pico della Mirandola

1463 - 1494

Pico della Mirandola was a student of Marsilio Ficino. He believed that classical texts and Christian texts were connected, and that there was a hierarchy of beings from God to spiritual beings to material beings, humanity being in the middle. He wrote the essay 'On the Dignity of Man'.

Castile and Aragon


Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married in 1469, united their two kingdoms together.

Niccolo Machiavelli

1469 - 1527

Machiavelli's life



Louis XI of France conquered Burgundy.

Spanish Inquisition


Isabella and Ferdinand establish the Inquisition.

Martin Luther

1483 - 1546

Martin Luther attended the University of Erfurt, and had a master's degree in the law. He became a priest, joined the Augustinian Friars, and earned a doctorate in Theology. His understanding of the Christian faith is described as "faith alone, grace alone, Scripture alone". Luther opposed the sales of indulgences, and published in 1517 'Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences'. He later split from Catholicism, and created the Lutheran Church.

Charles VIII of France

1483 - 1498

Charles VIII invaded Italy to respond to Milan's call for help in 1494. He reigned from 1483 to 1498.

Pope Alexander VI

1492 - 1503

Alexander VI was pope from 1492 to 1503. He was incredibly ruthless, and was aided by his illegitimate son, Cesare Borgia. Alexander reasserted power in the Papal Lands.

Christopher Columbus


In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue!



Spain conquers Granada, which ends the Reconquista, and practicing Jews are expelled from Spain.

France Invades Italy


The French invade Italy, which the Florentines thought meant the world was going to end, so they ousted the Medici family and put friar Girolamo Savonarola in power.

Sistine Chapel

1508 - 1512

Michelangelo painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.

Giorgio Vasari

1511 - 1574

Vasari, a historian, was the first to use 'Renaissance' in print.



The Portuguese capture Malacca from the Muslims.

"The Prince"


Niccolo Machiavelli's 'The Prince' is published.

"Ninety-five Theses on the Power of Indulgences"


Martin Luther wrote these theses to speak out against the Catholic Church's practice of indulgences. He later separated from the Church, creating the Lutheran Church.

New World Slave Trade


The Spanish king allows slave trade to go to the New World colonies.


1519 - 1522

Ferdinand Magellan navigates the world.

Hapsburg-Valois Wars

1521 - 1559

A series of long, drawn out wars fought between the Spanish and the French. The Spanish won, leaving France with money issues.

Mexica Empire


Hernando Cortes conquers the Mexica Empire.

Diet of Worms


The first diet held by the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, Charles V summoned Luther to appear. Luther's appearance created a broader audience for his ideals and arguments against the Catholic Church.

German Peasants' War


Aggravated by earlier crop failures and aggrieving nobles, the peasants rose up in 1525. They wanted to cite support from the Bible, and cited ideals of radical thinkers. Though he initially supported them, Martin Luther turned against the peasants' revolt, and they were slaughtered en mass by the German nobles.

"The Courtier"


Baldassare Castiglione's treatise that wanted to train, discipline, and fashion a young man into the ideal person.

Incan Empire


Francisco Pizarro conquers the Incan Empire.

First Formal Academy


The first formal artistic academy is established in Florence.

Grand Duchy of Tuscany


Florence was changed from a republic to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, and the Medici held power as the Grand Dukes till 1737.

Dutch East India Company


The Dutch East India Company was established.