Ruled a significantly larger area at the height of their power

9500 BC - 1300 BC

Pandyan Empire

1350 BC - 500 BC

Experts in water management, agriculture (mostly near river banks) & fisheries.

Were eminent sailors and sea traders too.

Home to temples including Meenakshi Amman Temple in Madurai, and Nellaiappar Temple built on the bank of the river Thamirabarani in Tirunelveli.

Were repeatedly in conflict with the Pallavas, Cholas, Hoysalas.

All together they were known as the Three Crowned Kings of Tamilakam.

Entered Golden age under Maravarman Sundara Pandyan and Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan

Approx. 1345 BC - Approx. 1216 BC

(c. 1251)

Expanded the empire into Telugu country, conquered Kalinga (Orissa) and invaded and conquered Sri Lanka.

Approx. 1345 BC - Approx. 1216 BC

Allied with the Sinhalese and the Cheras in harassing the Chola empire until they found an opportunity for reviving their fortunes

Approx. 1300 BC

Chola Dynasty

1279 BC - 350 BC

Stretched from the islands of the Maldives in the south to as far north as the banks of the Godavari River in Andhra Pradesh

1115 BC - 1010 BC

Built a large army, consisting of 200,000 infantry, 20,000 cavalry, 2,000 war chariots and 3,000 war elephants

450 BC - 350 BC

Nanda Empire

450 BC - 350 BC

extended from Bengal in the east, to the Punjab region in the west and as far south as the Vindhya Range.

450 BC - 350 BC

Philip II defeated the old powers of Athens and Thebes in the Battle of Chaeronea

338 BC

Macedonian Empire

334 BC - 323 BC

Mauryan Empire

321 BCE - 185 BCE

Empire had fully occupied Northwestern India, defeating and conquering the satraps left by Alexander.

317 BC

Seleucid Empire

312 BCE - 63 BCE

In the subsequent Treaty of Apamea , the Seleucids were compelled to pay costly war reparations and relinquished claims to territories west of the Taurus Mountains.

188 BC